by Bob Fields
On February 13:
1728 - John Hunter, Scottish surgeon and anatomist, an early advocate of careful observation and scientific method in medicine (d. 1793).
1849 – Lord Randolph Churchill, English politician, Chancellor of the Exchequer, father of Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill (d. 1895).
1885 - Bess Truman, American wife of Harry S. Truman, 35th U.S. First Lady (d. 1982).
1910 - William Shockley*, English-American physicist and academic, 1956 Nobel Prize laureate, who commercialized the transistor (d. 1989).
1923 - Chuck Yeager, American Air Force general, the first pilot to exceed the speed of sound in level flight.
1944 - Jerry Springer*, English-American television host, actor, and politician, 56th Mayor of Cincinnati.
1542 - Catherine Howard, the fifth wife of Henry VIII of England, is executed for adultery.
1660 – King Charles X Gustav* dies, and the Swedish government begins to seek peace with Sweden’s enemies in the Second Northern War, something that Charles had refused (b. 1622).
1728 - Cotton Mather, Massachusetts Bay Colony Puritan minister and author, supporter of the Salem witch trials (b. 1663).
1818 - George Rogers Clark, American Revolution general (b. 1752).
1883 - Richard Wagner, German director and composer (b. 1813).
2002 - Waylon Jennings, American country singer-songwriter and guitarist (The Highwaymen) (b. 1937).
1575 - Henry III of France is crowned at Reims and marries Louise de Lorraine* on the same day.
1633 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his heresy trial before the Inquisition, for advocating Copernican Theory.
1689 - William [Orange] and Mary [Stuart] are proclaimed co-rulers of England.
1866 - Jesse James holds up his first bank, the Clay County Savings Association in Liberty, Missouri, the first daylight armed bank robbery in the United States during peacetime.
1880 - Thomas Edison observes the Edison effect, thermionic emission of electrons later used in all vacuum tubes.
1914 - Copyright: In New York City the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) is established to protect the musical compositions of its members.
1935 – A jury finds Bruno Hauptmann* guilty of the 1932 kidnapping and murder of the baby son of Charles Lindbergh.
1945 – World War II: The siege of Budapest concludes with the unconditional surrender of German and Hungarian forces to the Red Army.
1945 – World War II: Royal Air Force bombers are dispatched to Dresden, Germany, the first of 4 raids to attack the city with a massive aerial bombardment.
1960 -”Gerboise Bleue“: France becomes the fourth country to possess nuclear weapons.
1984 - Konstantin Chernenko* succeeds the late Yuri Andropov* (15 months in office) as general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He lives for another 13 months.
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