by Bob Fields
On September 20:
1878 – Upton Sinclair, American journalist and author, Socialist, and Democratic Party nominee for Governor of California (d.1968) (The Jungle).
1920 – Jay Ward*, American animator, producer, and screenwriter (d. 1989) (Rocky & Bullwinkle, Dudley Do-Right, Peabody and Sherman, George of the Jungle).
1929 – Anne Meara*, American actress and comedian, wife of Jerry Stiller* and mother of Ben Stiller* (Stiller and Meara).
1934 – Sophia Loren*, Italian-Swiss actress. (Two Women).
1948 – Chuck Panozzo*, American bass player, and John Panozzo* (d. 1996) drummer (Styx).
1793 – Fletcher Christian, English navy lieutenant (b. 1764) (mutiny on the Bounty).
1839 – Sir Thomas Hardy, 1st Baronet*, English Vice Admiral, flag captain to Admiral Lord Nelson, commanded HMS Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in October 1805 (b. 1769).
1863 – Jacob Grimm, German philologist, jurist, and author (b. 1785) (Brothers Grimm, Grimm’s Law).
1957 – Jean Sibelius*, Finnish composer, whose music played an important role in the formation of the Finnish national identity (b. 1865).
2005 – Simon Wiesenthal*, Ukrainian-Austrian holocaust survivor and Nazi hunter (b. 1908).
480 BC – Greco-Persian wars: Greeks defeat Persians in the Battle of Salamis. A Persian victory would have stifled Ancient Greece and the development of western civilization as we know it.
1187 – Saladin* begins the Siege of Jerusalem. The fall was the end of the first Kingdom of Jerusalem. Europe responded in 1189 by launching the Third Crusade under Richard Lionheart of England, Philip Augustus of France, and Frederick Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire.
1378 – Cardinal Robert of Geneva* (1342-1394) is elected as Avignon (anti-) Pope Clement VII, by the French cardinals who opposed Pope Urban VI*, beginning the Papal schism.
1519 – Ferdinand Magellan sets sail from Spain with about 270 men on his expedition to circumnavigate the globe.
1565 – Fort Caroline: The first European battle on American soil, near present day Jacksonville FL. The French Huguenot fort is sacked by Spanish troops.
1643 – First English Civil War: First Battle of Newbury: King Charles I’s Royalist army is defeated by a Parliamentarian force, the high point of the Royalist advance.
1777 – American Revolution: Philadelphia campaign: Battle of Paoli: British General Charles Grey* leads a surprise attack on General Anthony Wayne‘s encampment using only bayonets, no flintlocks. The engagement became known as the “Paoli Massacre.”
1806 – The Lewis and Clark Expedition returns to the first white settlement, La Charette, Missouri, since leaving 2 ½ years earlier. They reach St. Louis two days later.
1854 – Battle of Alma: British and French troops defeat the Russians, considered the first battle of the Crimean War (1853-1856).
1863 – American Civil War: The Battle of Chickamauga, Tennessee, William Rosecrans is defeated by Braxton Bragg, the most significant Union defeat in the Western Theater.
1870 – King Victor Emmanuel II*’s troops enter Rome and complete the unification of Italy.
1881 – Chester A. Arthur is sworn in as the third US President in one year, following the assassination of James Garfield.
1946 – The first Cannes Film Festival is held.
1973 – Billie Jean King* beats Bobby Riggs* in The Battle of the Sexes tennis match.
The individuals marked with “*” don’t have a profile on WikiTree yet. Please help grow our tree.
From his profile: “William Frederick Cody was born on February 26, 1846 on a farm just outside Le Claire, Iowa, the son of Isaac and Mary Ann Bonsel (Laycock) Cody. William was baptized in the Dixie Union Chapel in Peel County, Ontario, Canada in 1847, this church was built on land donated by his grandfather, Phillip J Cody.
During the Civil War, Bill served first as a Union Scout in campaigns against the Kiowa and Comanche, and later enlisted in the 7th Kansas Calvary. He served as a private in Company “H” from 1863 to the end of the war in 1865.Bill earned his nickname, Buffalo Bill, after the Civil War when he had a contract to supply Kansas Pacific Railroad workers with buffalo meat. He is said to have killed 4,282 American Bison (Buffalo) in eighteen months during 1866-67.
In 1883, Buffalo Bill started his own show,Buffalo Bill’s Wild West, which was a touring circus. In 1893, Cody changed the title to “Buffalo Bill’s Wild West and Congress of Rough Riders of the World”. The show began with a parade on horseback, with participants from horse-culture groups that included US and other military, American Indians, and performers from all over the world in their best attire. Turks, Gauchos, Arabs, Mongols and Georgians, displayed their distinctive horses and colorful costumes. Sitting Bull appeared with a band of 20 of his braves.
Besides his touring shows, Bill Cody was instrumental in the founding of Cody, Wyoming. He fought for a hunting season and other restrictions to protect the diminishing buffalo. He and his associates introduced an irrigation system by diverting water from the Shoshone River, which failed due to lack of money for a holding system.
Bill Cody died of kidney failure on January 10, 1917, in Denver, Colorado, the day after he was baptized into the Catholic Church.”
Ken Burns’ latest film “The Roosevelts” An Intimate History” is airing this week on PBS so in conjunction with that, today’s Pick comes from our U.S. Presidential Project and features the Roosevelt family! The film focuses on Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt and his wife Eleanor Roosevelt, all of whom have wonderful profiles on WikiTree.
From his profile: “Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt was characterized as being a depressed, neurotic, imperalistic and opportunistic individual. He served as Governor of NY, was married twice, became Vice President under McKinley and was the youngest President as he was 42 years old when he took the office.
September 14, 1901, is when Theodore Roosevelt became president. The way he became president was because president McKinley was assassinated.
President Roosevelt wasn’t only a vice president or a president, he was also a deputy sheriff in Dakota Territory. He was also police commissioner of New York City, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, and Colonel of the Rough Riders. All this happened by the age of 42.
His main hobbies and interests were reading, and adventures. He especially loved to read science, nature, and hunting books because he found them very amusing and interesting. Roosevelt was truly a widely-recognized man, and was a true honor to society. He was considered a true American hero, the example that people should live by.”
From his profile: “Franklin Delano Roosevelt (often called FDR) was the thirty-second president of the United States. He served from 1933 through 1945. Assuming the Presidency at the depth of the Great Depression, Franklin D. Roosevelt helped the American people regain faith in themselves. He brought hope as he promised prompt, vigorous action, and asserted in his Inaugural Address, “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”
Following the example of his fifth cousin, President Theodore Roosevelt, whom he greatly admired, Franklin D. Roosevelt entered public service through politics, but as a Democrat. He won election to the New York Senate in 1910. President Wilson appointed him Assistant Secretary of the Navy, and he was the Democratic nominee for Vice President in 1920.
In the summer of 1921, when he was 39, disaster hit-he was stricken with poliomyelitis. Demonstrating indomitable courage, he fought to regain the use of his legs, particularly through swimming. At the 1924 Democratic Convention he dramatically appeared on crutches to nominate Alfred E. Smith as “the Happy Warrior.” In 1928 Roosevelt became Governor of New York. He was elected President in November 1932, to the first of four terms.”
From her profile: Eleanor was.. “was the longest-serving First Lady of the United States, holding the post from 1933 to 1945 during her husband Franklin D. Roosevelt’s four terms in office. President Harry S. Truman later nicknamed her the “First Lady of the World” in tribute to her human rights achievements.
Though widely respected in her later years, Roosevelt was a controversial First Lady for her outspokenness, particularly for her stands on racial issues. She was the first presidential spouse to hold press conferences, write a syndicated newspaper column, and speak at a national convention; on a few occasions, she publicly disagreed with her husband’s policies. She launched an experimental community at Arthurdale, West Virginia for the families of unemployed miners, later widely regarded as a failure. She advocated for expanded roles for women in the workplace, the civil rights of African Americans and Japanese Americans, and the rights of World War II refugees.”
Henry Louis Gates, Jr., was born September 16, 1950 in Keyser, West Virginia to Henry Louis Gates, Sr., and Pauline Augusta Coleman. His family is descended from the Yorubi nation of Benin. While playing touch football at the age of 14, Henry was injured, fracturing the ball and socket joint in his hip. The doctor misdiagnosed, calling it psychosomatic instead, so that when the physical damage did finally heal, his right leg was two inches shorter than his left.
Henry is is the Alphonse Fletcher University Professor and Director of the Hutchins Center for African & African American Research at Harvard University. Not only that, he has also created 13 documentaries, authored 16 books, written innumerable articles and is a literary scholar, filmmaker, journalist, cultural critic, and institution builder.
As if that wasn’t enough (!) Mr. Gates also serves as editor-in-chief of TheRoot.com while also overseeing the Oxford African American Studies Center, the first comprehensive scholarly online resource in the field. He’s hosted several PBS mini-series and his six-part PBS documentary series, “The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross”, tracing 500 years of African American history, earned the 2013 Peabody Award and NAACP Image Award. Season two of his genealogical series “Finding Your Roots” is set to air in fall of 2014.
Henry Gates has been the recipient of 53 honorary degrees and numerous academic and social action awards. He was listed in Time among its “25 Most Influential Americans” in 1997 and Ebony magazine listed him among its “100 Most Influential Black Americans” in 2005. In 2010, Gates became the first African American to have his genome fully sequenced.
View the full profile of Henry Louis Gates.