by Bob Fields
On April 25:
1214 - Louis IX, King of France 1226-70, Saint, the only canonized king of France (d. 1270).
1284 - Edward II of England, an ineffective King who was ultimately deposed (d. 1327).
1287 - Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, English politician, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, imprisoned in 1322 for leading a revolt against King Edward II in the Despenser War (d. 1330).
1599 - Oliver Cromwell, English Civil War general and politician, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (d. 1658).
1874 - Guglielmo Marconi, Italian businessman and inventor, pioneered work on long-distance radio transmission, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1937).
1900 - Wolfgang Pauli*, Austrian, a pioneers of quantum physics, 1945 Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1958).
1908 - Edward R. Murrow*, American broadcast journalist (d. 1965).
1917 - Ella Fitzgerald, American singer-songwriter and actress (d. 1996).
1940 - Al Pacino, American actor and director (The Godfather, Scarface, Scent of a Woman).
1964 - Hank Azaria, American actor and director (The Simpsons).
1744 - Anders Celsius*, Swedish astronomer, who proposed the Celsius temperature scale (b. 1701).
1853 - William Beaumont*, U.S. Army surgeon known as the “Father of Gastric Physiology” following his research on human digestion (b. 1785).
1878 - Anna Sewell*, English author (b. 1820) (Black Beauty).
1995 - Ginger Rogers, American actress, singer, and dancer (b. 1911).
2009 - Bea Arthur, American actress and singer (b. 1922) (Maude, The Golden Girls).
404 BC - Peloponnesian War: Lysander‘s Spartan Armies defeat the Athenians and the war ends.
1707 – A coalition of England, the Netherlands and Portugal is defeated by a Franco-Spanish army at Almansa (Spain) in the War of the Spanish Succession, reclaiming most of eastern Spain for the Bourbons.
1792 – Highwayman Nicolas J. Pelletier* becomes the first person executed by guillotine.
1792 - La Marseillaise (the French national anthem) is composed by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle*.
1846 - Thornton Affair: Open conflict begins over the disputed border of Texas, triggering the Mexican-American War.
1859 – British and French engineers break ground for the Suez Canal.
1862 – American Civil War: Forces under Union Admiral David Farragut demand the surrender of the Confederate city of New Orleans, Louisiana.
1898 - Spanish-American War: The United States declares war on Spain.
1915 – World War I: The Battle of Gallipoli: The invasion of the Turkish Gallipoli Peninsula by Australian, British, French and New Zealand troops begins. Commemorated as ANZAC Day.
1945 - Elbe Day: U.S. and Soviet troops meet in Torgau along the River Elbe, cutting the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany in half.
1945 - The Nazi occupation army surrenders in Italy, and Benito Mussolini* is captured after trying to escape. Commemorated as Liberation Day.
1953 - Francis Crick and James D. Watson publish “Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid“. Commemorated as DNA Day.
1990 - Space shuttle Discovery places the Hubble Space Telescope into a low orbit around Earth.
1982 – Israel completes its withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula per the Camp David Accords.
2005 – Bulgaria and Romania sign accession treaties to join the European Union.