by Bob Fields
On September 21:
1411 – Richard of York, who governed England as Lord Protector during Henry VI‘s madness. Father of Kings Edward IV and Richard III. His conflicts were a leading cause of the Wars of the Roses (d. 1460).
1415 – Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, the first emperor of the House of Habsburg (d. 1493).
1645 – Louis Jolliet, Canadian, the first to explore and map much of the Mississippi River in 1673 (d. 1700).
1849 – Maurice Barrymore, Indian-American actor, patriarch of the Barrymore acting family, father of John, Lionel and Ethel, and great-grandfather of actress Drew. (d. 1905).
1867 – Henry L. Stimson*, American WW1 colonel, lawyer, and politician, Secretary of War during WW2, 46th Secretary of State (d. 1950).
1866 – H. G. Wells, English journalist, historian, and author (d. 1946) (The War of the Worlds, The Time Machine, The Invisible Man).
1912 – Chuck Jones*, American animator (d. 2002) (Looney Tunes, Merrie Melodies, Warner Bros. Cartoons, Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, the Road Runner and Wile E. Coyote, Pepé Le Pew, Porky Pig).
1931 – Larry Hagman*, American actor, director, and producer (d. 2012) (I Dream of Jeannie, Dallas).
1945 – Jerry Bruckheimer*, American film and television producer (CSI, Beverly Hills Cop, Flashdance, Top Gun, The Rock, Black Hawk Down, Pirates of the Caribbean, National Treasure).
1947 – Stephen King*, American horror author and screenwriter (Carrie, The Shining, The Stand, Misery, It, Cujo).
1947 – Don Felder*, American guitarist, songwriter, and author (Eagles, Heaven and Hell: My Life in the Eagles).
1950 – Bill Murray, American actor and comedian (Saturday Night Live, Caddyshack, Ghostbusters, What About Bob? , Groundhog Day, Lost in Translation).
1967 – Faith Hill*, American singer-songwriter and actress. Won five Grammy Awards, twelve Academy of Country Music Awards, four American Music Awards.
1327 – Edward II of England, King from 1307-27, after being deposed by his wife Isabella Capet of France and her lover Sir Roger Mortimer (b. 1284).
1397 – Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, English commander , beheaded for his opposition to Richard II (b. 1346).
1558 – Charles V [Habsburg], Holy Roman Emperor, aka Charles I of Spain (1516-56),who opposed the Protestant Reformation and oversaw the Spanish colonization of the Americas (b. 1500).
1832 – Sir Walter Scott, Scottish author, poet, and playwright (b. 1771) (Ivanhoe, Rob Roy).
1904 – Chief Joseph*, American Nez Perce tribal leader (b. 1840) (“From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever.”).
1938 – The Great Hurricane of 1938 makes landfall on Long Island in New York. The death toll is estimated at 500-700 people.
1998 – Florence Griffith-Joyner*, American Olympic runner (b. 1959).
1435 – Hundred Years’ War: Treaty of Arras: Charles VII of France and Philip the Good*, Duke of Burgundy, end the partnership between the English and French Burgundy.
1776 – Great Fire of New York burns the west side of Manhattan, shortly after being occupied by British forces, who stayed until 1783.
1779 – The Spanish, with the aid of American troops and militia volunteers, capture the British post and garrison at Baton Rouge (Louisiana), in what was then British-controlled West Florida.
1780 – American Revolutionary War: Benedict Arnold* commits treason by giving British Major John André* the plans to West Point. André (b. 1750) was caught and hanged on Oct 2.
1792 – The National Convention declares France a republic and abolishes the monarchy.
1823 – According to Joseph Smith Jr., the angel Moroni gave him a record of gold plates, which Joseph translated into The Book of Mormon, the sacred text of the Latter Day Saints (LDS) church.
1897 – The “Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus” editorial is published in the New York Sun.
1942 – On the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur, Nazis send over 1,000 Jews to Belzec, order Jews to permanently evacuate Konstantynów and move to the Ghetto in Biała Podlaska, and murder 2,588 Jews in Dunaivtsi, Ukraine.
1942 – The B-29 Superfortress makes its maiden flight, later used in the bombing of Japan.
1949 – Mao Zedong* announces that the new Chinese government will be “under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.”
1972 – President Ferdinand Marcos* places the Philippines under martial law, until January 1981, the beginning of his authoritarian rule.
1981 – Sandra Day O’Connor* is unanimously approved by the U.S. Senate as the first female Supreme Court justice.
1993 – Russian President Boris Yeltsin* suspends parliament and scraps the then-functioning constitution, triggering the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993.
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