by Bob Fields
On October 19:
1748 – Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson, wife of US President Thomas Jefferson (d. 1782).
1862 – Auguste Lumière, French director and producer, patented the cinematograph (d. 1954).
1885 – Charles Merrill*, American banker, co-founded Merrill Lynch Wealth Management (d. 1956).
1901 – Arleigh Burke*, American WW2 admiral (d. 1996).
1922 – Jack Anderson*, American journalist, syndicated columnist, and author. 1972 Pulitzer Prize winner (d. 2005).
1931 – John le Carré*, English intelligence officer and author (The Spy Who Came in from the Cold).
1932 – Robert Reed*, American stage, film and television actor and television director. (d. 1992) (The Brady Bunch).
1945 – John Lithgow*, American actor, musician, and author (The World According to Garp, Terms of Endearment, Footloose, 3rd Rock from the Sun, Dexter).
1969 – Trey Parker*, American actor, animator, producer, and screenwriter (South Park, The Book of Mormon).
1969 – John Edward*, American psychic and author (Crossing Over).
1216 – John, King of England, who signed the Magna Carta (b. 1167).
1745 – Jonathan Swift*, Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (b. 1667) (Gulliver’s Travels).
1937 – Ernest Rutherford*, New Zealand-English physicist and chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate, the father of nuclear physics (b. 1871).
1978 – Gig Young*, American actor (b. 1913) (They Shoot Horses, Don’t They?).
202 BC -Battle of Zama: Roman legions under Scipio Africanus defeat Hannibal Barca, ending the Second Punic War. Carthage never again recovers supremacy.
1781 – At Yorktown, Virginia, British commander Lord Cornwallis surrenders to George Washington and the comte de Rochambeau*, effectively ending the American Revolution. The British bands played the song “The World Turned Upside Down.” Two years later, a formal treaty was signed.
1789 – John Jay is sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court.
1796 – Alexander Hamilton, using a pseudonym in the Gazette of the United States, accuses widowed Thomas Jefferson of having an affair with his slave Sally Hemings. DNA evidence later shows this to likely be true.
1812 – Napoleon Bonaparte retreats from Moscow, one month after occupying the city. The Grande Armée lost over 480,000 out of 615,000 men during the Russian invasion.
1864 – Battle of Cedar Creek – Union Army under Philip Sheridan* destroys a Confederate Army under Jubal Early*. The final Confederate invasion of the North was effectively ended.
1914 – The First Battle of Ypres begins. The battle completed the entrenchments of the “race to the sea” and inaugurated the static western front.
1933 – Germany withdraws from the League of Nations.
1935 – The League of Nations places deliberately ineffectual economic sanctions on fascist Italy for its invasion of Ethiopia.
1950 – The People’s Republic of China joins the Korean War by sending thousands of troops across the Yalu River to fight United Nations forces. United Nations forces entered the North Korean capital of Pyongyang on the same day.
1960 – Cold War: The US imposes a trade embargo against Cuba, which remains in effect today, in response to Cuba’s seizure of U.S. properties and alignment with the Soviet Union.
2005 – Saddam Hussein* goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.
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