On September 24:
1564 - William Adams*, English sailor and navigator, the first to reach Japan, a key advisor to the shogun and trade representative (d. 1620).
1583 - Albrecht von Wallenstein*, Bohemian general, a major force during the Thirty Years’ War for the Habsburg Monarchy (d. 1634).
1755 - John Marshall, American Representative, Secretary of State, 4th Supreme Court Chief Justice (d. 1835).
1896 - F. Scott Fitzgerald, American novelist and short story writer (d. 1940) (The Great Gatsby, Tender Is the Night).
1898 - Howard Florey, Australian pharmacologist and pathologist, 1945 Nobel Prize laureate for his role in development of penicillin (d. 1968).
1902 – Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini*, Iranian religious leader and politician, 1st Supreme Leader of Iran (d. 1989).
1936 - Jim Henson, American puppeteer, director, producer and screenwriter, created The Muppets (d. 1990).
1948 - Phil Hartman, Canadian-American actor and screenwriter, killed by his wife (d. 1998) (Saturday Night Live).
768 - Pepin the Short, Frankish king, the first of the Carolingians to become king, father of Charlemagne (b. 714).
1545 - Albert of Mainz*, German cardinal, whose indulgences infuriated Martin Luther, which led to the 95 Theses, which led to the Protestant Reformation (b. 1490).
1889 - D. H. Hill*, American Confederate general and academic (b. 1821).
1991 - Dr. Seuss (Theodor Seuss Geisel), American children’s book writer, poet, and illustrator (b. 1904).
622 - Muhammad and his followers completed their Hijra from Mecca to Medina to escape religious persecution.
1789 – The U.S. Congress creates the office of the Attorney General and the federal judiciary system, and orders the composition of the Supreme Court.
1869 – “Black Friday“: Gold prices plummet after Ulysses S. Grant orders the Treasury to sell large quantities of gold after Jay Gould and James Fisk* plot to control the market.
1906 – U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt proclaims Devils Tower in Wyoming as the nation’s first National Monument.
1957 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower sends troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to enforce desegregation.
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