by Bob Fields
On This Day:
1428 – Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, a Yorkist leader in the Wars of the Roses, instrumental in deposing two kings. (d. 1471).
1515 – Mary of Guise, French Queen of Scotland, mother of Mary, Queen of Scots, regent of Scotland in her daughter’s name from 1554 to 1560 (d. 1560).
1564 – Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham, Lord Lieutenant of Kent, who was implicated in the Main Plot against the rule of James I of England. (d. 1618).
1868 – John Nance Garner, 32nd US Vice President under FDR, who helped defeat FDR’s plans to enlarge the US Supreme Court (d. 1967).
1890 – Charles de Gaulle*, French general and politician, 18th President of France (d. 1970).
1898 – Wiley Post, American pilot, the first to fly solo around the world (d. 1935).
1899 – Hoagy Carmichael, American singer-songwriter, pianist, and actor (d. 1981) (“Stardust“, “Georgia on My Mind“, “Heart and Soul“).
1921 – Rodney Dangerfield*, American comedian, actor, and screenwriter (d. 2004) (Easy Money, Caddyshack, and Back to school).
1924 – Geraldine Page*, American actress and singer (d. 1987) (The Trip to Bountiful, What Ever Happened to Aunt Alice?).
1950 – Steve Van Zandt, American musician, songwriter, and actor (Bruce Springsteen‘s E Street Band, The Sopranos).
1958 – Jamie Lee Curtis, American actress and writer (Halloween, Trading Places, True Lies).
1961 – Mariel Hemingway, American actress (Manhattan).
1967 – Boris Becker*, German-Swiss tennis player, six-time Grand Slam singles champion, Olympic gold medalist in doubles, and Wimbledon’s youngest men’s singles winner at age 17.
1984 – Scarlett Johansson, American actress and singer (The Avengers).
1718 – British pirate Edward Teach (“Blackbeard“) is killed off the coast of North Carolina, in battle with Royal Navy Lieutenant Robert Maynard* (b. 1680).
1774 – Robert Clive, English general and politician, who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal, securing India for the British crown. (b. 1725).
1902 – Walter Reed, American physician and entomologist, who confirmed that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquito (b. 1851).
1916 – Jack London*, American journalist and author (b. 1876) (The Call of the Wild, The Sea Wolf).
1943 – Lorenz Hart*, American Broadway lyricist (b. 1895) (Rodgers and Hart, “My Funny Valentine“, “The Lady Is a Tramp“).
1955 – Shemp Howard*, American actor and comedian (b. 1895) (The Three Stooges).
1963 – John F. Kennedy is assassinated In Dallas, and Texas Governor John Connally is seriously wounded. Lee Harvey Oswald is charged with the murder. Oswald is shot two days later by Jack Ruby* while in police custody. Kennedy is the fourth and last President to be assassinated.
1963 – Aldous Huxley, English-American author and screenwriter (b. 1894) (Brave New World).
1963 – C. S. Lewis, Irish-English author, poet, and critic (b. 1898) (The Chronicles of Narnia).
1980 – Mae West, American actress, singer, and author (b. 1893) (She Done Him Wrong, I’m No Angel).
1307 – Pope Clement V* issues the papal bull Pastoralis Praeeminentiae which instructed all Christian monarchs in Europe to arrest all Templars and seize their assets.
1699 – The Treaty of Preobrazhenskoye is signed by Denmark, Russia, Saxony and Poland, for the partitioning of the Swedish Empire. Following the treaty, the Great Northern War begins.
1942 – World War II: Battle of Stalingrad: General Friedrich Paulus* sends Adolf Hitler a telegram saying that his German 6th Army is surrounded.
1943 – Lebanon gains independence from France.
1963 – Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn in as the 36th President.
1975 – Juan Carlos* I is declared King of Spain following the death of Francisco Franco*.
1990 – British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher withdraws from the Conservative Party leadership election, confirming the end of her premiership.
1995 – Toy Story is released as the first feature-length film created completely using computer-generated imagery.
2004 – The Orange Revolution begins in Ukraine, resulting from the presidential elections.
2005 – Angela Merkel* becomes the first female Chancellor of Germany, the first to be born after World War II, and the first post-reunification Chancellor to be raised in the former East Germany.
Feast Day of St. Cecilia, patron saint of musicians.
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