by Bob Fields

On January 25:

Birthdays:

Robert Boyle (Image Credit: WikiTree)

Robert Burns (Image Credit: WikiTree)

Corazon Aquino (Image Credit: WikiTree)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1627 – Robert Boyle, Irish, regarded as the first modern chemist (d. 1691) (Boyle’s law).
1759 – Robert Burns, Scottish national poet (d. 1796) (“Auld Lang Syne“).
1860 – Charles Curtis*, 31st US Vice President 1929-33, the first with significant (3/8) Native American heritage (d. 1936).
1882 – Virginia Woolf, English author and critic (d. 1941) (A Room of One’s Own).
1928 – Eduard Shevardnadze*, Georgian general and politician, 2nd President of Georgia (d. 2014).
1933 – Corazon Aquino, 11th President of the Philippines, who toppled the 20-year authoritarian rule of President Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy (d. 2009).
1981 – Alicia Keys*, American singer-songwriter, pianist, and actress (“Fallin’“).

Deaths:

Genseric of the Vandals (Image Credit: WikiTree)

Al Capone (Image Credit: WikiTree)

Ava Gardner (Image Credit: WikiTree)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

389 – Gregory of Nazianzus, Byzantine archbishop and saint (b. 329).
477 – Genseric, Vandals king, who captured and plundered Rome in June 455 (b. 389).
1852 – Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen*, Russian admiral, cartographer, and explorer who discovered Antarctica (b. 1778).
1947 – Al Capone, “Scarface”, American mobster (b. 1899).
1990 – Ava Gardner, American actress (b. 1922) (Mogambo, Show Boat).

Other Events:

Edward III (Image Credit: Wikipedia)

Anne Boleyn (Image Credit: WikiTree)

Idi Amin (Image Credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1327 – Edward III becomes King of England, for 50 years. He started the Hundred Years’ War with France.
1533 – Henry VIII of England secretly marries his second wife Anne Boleyn. She is beheaded 3 years later.
1905 – At the Premier Mine in Pretoria, South Africa, a 3,106-carat (1.37 pound) diamond is discovered. The “Cullinan,” the largest diamond ever found, was cut into nine large stones, now on display in the Tower of London with Britain’s other crown jewels.
1915 – Alexander Graham Bell inaugurates U.S. transcontinental telephone service, speaking from New York to Thomas Watson* in San Francisco.
1924 – The first Winter Olympics opens in Chamonix, in the French Alps.
1942 – World War II: Thailand (under Japanese control) declares war on the United States and United Kingdom.
1949 – The first Emmy Awards ceremony at the Hollywood Athletic Club.
1955 – The Soviet Union ends the state of war with Germany.
1959 – American Airlines has the first scheduled transcontinental flight, of a Boeing 707.
1961 – In Washington, D.C. John F. Kennedy delivers the first live presidential television news conference.
1981 – Jiang Qing*, the widow of China’s Mao Zedong*, is sentenced to death.
1971 – Charles Manson and three female “Family” members are found guilty of the 1969 Tate-LaBianca murders.
1971 – Idi Amin leads a coup and becomes Uganda’s president. Over 8 years he kills about 500,000 people.
2006 – The Islamic militant group Hamas wins a large majority of seats in Palestinian parliamentary elections.
2011 – The Egyptian revolution begins in Cairo, Alexandria, and other cities, with demonstrations to demand the end of President Hosni Mubarak*’s rule.

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by Bob Fields

On January 24:
Birthdays:

Hadrian (Image Credit: Wikipedia)

Frederick the Great (Image Credit: WikiTree)

Neil Diamond (Image Credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

76 – Hadrian*, Roman emperor, built Hadrian’s Wall which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain (d. 138).
1670 – William Congreve*, English playwright, who wrote “Music has charms to soothe a savage breast” and “Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned” (d. 1729).
1712 – Frederick the Great, Prussian king, won the Seven Years’ War (d. 1786).
1862 – Edith Wharton, Pulitzer Prize-winning American author (d. 1937) (The Age of Innocence).
1888 – Ernst Heinkel*, German businessman, founded the Heinkel Aircraft Manufacturing Company which produced the world’s first jet plane and the first rocket aircraft (d. 1958).
1891 – Walter Model*, German field marshal, noted for his defensive battles mostly on the Eastern Front, who also lost the Battle of the Bulge (d. 1945).
1917 – Ernest Borgnine*, American actor (d. 2012) (Marty, McHale’s Navy).
1941 – Neil Diamond*, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (“Song Sung Blue“,  “America“, “Sweet Caroline“, “I’m a Believer“).
1943 – Sharon Tate, American actress, wife of director Roman Polanski, who was murdered by followers of Charles Manson (d. 1969) (Valley of the Dolls).
1947 – Warren Zevon*, American singer-songwriter (“Werewolves of London“, “Lawyers, Guns and Money“) (d. 2003).
1949John Belushi*, American actor and comedian (d. 1982) (Saturday Night Live, Animal House, The Blues Brothers).
1968 – Mary Lou Retton*, American Olympic gold medal gymnast.

 Deaths:

Caligula (Image Credit: WIkiTree)

Winston Churchill (Image Credit: WikiTree)

Thurgood Marshall (Image Credit: WikiTree)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

41 – Caligula, Roman emperor, assassinated by officers of his Praetorian Guard, succeeded by his uncle Claudius (b. 12).
1376 – Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, English commander during the Second Wars of Scottish Independence and the Hundred Years’ War (b. 1306).
1965 – Winston Churchill, English colonel and politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1874).
1975Larry Fine*, American comedian and violinist (b. 1902) (The Three Stooges).
1983George Cukor*, American director and producer (b. 1899) (The Philadelphia Story, Gaslight, A Star Is Born, My Fair Lady).
1986 – Gordon MacRae*, American actor and singer (b. 1921) (Oklahoma!, Carousel).
1986L. Ron Hubbard, American author, founded the Church of Scientology (b. 1911).
1993 – Thurgood Marshall, the first African-American Justice of the US Supreme Court (b. 1908).

Other Events:

California Gold Rush (Image Credit: Wikipedia)

Robert Baden-Powell (Image Credit: Wikipedia)

Casablanca Conference (Image Credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1848 – California Gold Rush: James W. Marshall* finds gold at Sutter’s Mill near Sacramento.
1908 – The first Boy Scout troop is organized in England by Robert Baden-Powell*, with the publication of the first installment of his book Scouting for Boys.
1924 – The Russian city of St. Petersburg was renamed to Leningrad in honor of late revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin. It was renamed to St. Petersburg again in 1991.
1935 – The Krueger Brewing Company placed the first canned beer on sale in Richmond, VA.
1943 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill conclude a conference in Casablanca, producing the doctrine of “unconditional surrender”.
1961 – Goldsboro B-52 crash: A bomber carrying two H-bombs breaks up in mid-air over North Carolina. The uranium core of one weapon remains lost.
1961 – Marilyn Monroe divorces playwright Arthur Miller after 5 years of marriage.
1972 - After 28 years of hiding in the jungles of Guam, local farmers discover Shoichi Yokoi*, a Japanese WW2 sergeant who preferred death to the disgrace of getting captured alive.
2006 – The Walt Disney Company purchases Pixar for $7.4 billion. Steve Jobs clashed with Michael Eisner, Roy Disney led a shareholder revolt, and Eisner was stripped of his chairmanship and stepped down as CEO.

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by Bob Fields

On January 18:
Birthdays:

Daniel Webster (Image Credit: WikiTree)

A.A. Milne (Image Credit: WikiTree)

Cary Grant (Image Credit: WikiTree)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1689 – Charles Montesquieu*, French philosopher during the Age of Enlightenment (d. 1755) (separation of powers).
1782 – Daniel Webster, American politician, 14th US Secretary of State. He was a spokesman for American nationalism with powerful oratory, making him a key Whig leader (d. 1852).
1779 – Peter Mark Roget*, English physician, lexicographer, and theologian (d. 1869) (Roget’s Thesaurus).
1813 – Joseph Glidden, American farmer, patented barbed wire which altered the development of the American West (d. 1906).
1854 – Thomas A. Watson*, American assistant to Alexander Graham Bell, and shipbuilder (d. 1934).
1882 – A. A. Milne, English author (d. 1956) (Winnie-the-Pooh).
1888 – Thomas Sopwith*, English aviation pioneer and yachtsman (d. 1989) (Sopwith Aviation Company, Camel WW1 fighter).
1892 – Oliver Hardy, American comedian and actor (d. 1957) (Laurel and Hardy).
1904 – Cary Grant (Archibald Alexander Leach), English-American actor (d. 1986) (Notorious, An Affair to Remember, North by Northwest).
1913 – Danny Kaye*, American singer and actor (d. 1987) (The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, White Christmas).
1933 – Ray Dolby*, American engineer and businessman, founded Dolby Laboratories (d. 2013).
1955 – Kevin Costner, American actor, singer, director, and producer (The Untouchables, Bull Durham, Field of Dreams, Dances with Wolves, JFK, The Bodyguard).

Deaths:

John Tyler (Image Credit: Wikipedia)

Rudyard Kipling (Image Credit: WikiTree)

Robert Shriver (Image Credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1862 – John Tyler of Virginia, American politician, 10th US President 1841-45. At his death, he was a Congressman-elect to the Confederate House of Representatives (b. 1790).
1936 – Rudyard Kipling, English author and poet, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1865) (The Jungle Book, “Gunga Din“, “The Man Who Would Be King“, Kim).
1952 – Curly Howard, American comedian and vaudevillian actor (b. 1903) (The Three Stooges: “nyuk-nyuk-nyuk!”, “soitenly!”).
2011 – Sargent Shriver, Vice Presidential candidate, 21st US Ambassador to France, part of the Kennedy family, created the Peace Corps, the Job Corps, and Head Start (b. 1915).

Other Events:

Captain James Cook (Image Credit: WikiTree)

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Image Credit: Wikipedia)

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr (Image Credit: WikiTree)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1486 – King Henry VII of England marries Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, unifying the warring houses of York and Lancaster.
1670 – Pirate Henry Morgan captures Panama.
1701 – Frederick I crowns himself King in Prussia.
1778 – James Cook is the first known European to discover the Hawaiian Islands, which he names the “Sandwich Islands”.
1788 – The first ship of the First Fleet arrives at Botany Bay, Australia, from England. Eleven vessels carried 1,487 people (736 convicts) for 252 days and 15,000 miles.
1871 – Wilhelm I of Germany is proclaimed the first German Emperor, towards the end of the Franco-Prussian War. The empire is known as the Second Reich to Germans.
1911 – Eugene B. Ely* lands on the deck of the USS Pennsylvania in San Francisco Bay, the first time an aircraft landed on a ship, and the first naval aviator.
1919 – World War I: The Paris Peace Conference opens in Versailles, France.
1943 – Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: The first uprising of Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto begins, opposing Germany’s effort to transport the remaining Ghetto population to Treblinka extermination camp.
1944 – World War II: Soviet forces break the three-year Nazi Siege of Leningrad. There were over 1 million deaths during the siege.
1945 – World War II: Liberation of the Budapest ghetto and Krakow, Poland by the Soviet Red Army.
1983 – The International Olympic Committee restores Jim Thorpe‘s Olympic medals to his family, 70 years after they were taken from him for being paid $25 in semipro baseball.
1990 – Washington, D.C. Mayor Marion Barry* is arrested after being videotaped smoking Crack cocaine. After serving 6 months in prison, in 1995 he was elected to a fourth term as mayor.
1993 – Martin Luther King, Jr. Day is officially observed for the first time in all 50 states.

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by Bob Fields

On January 17:
Birthdays:

Benjamin Franklin (Image Credit: WikiTree)

Al Capone (Image Credit: WikiTree)

Muhammad Ali (Image Credit: WikiTree)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1342 – Philip II “the Bold”, Duke of Burgundy, founder of the Burgundian branch of the House of Valois. His successors were formidable rivals of the King of France (d.1404).
1504 – Pope Pius V*, later Saint. Notable for his role in the Council of Trent and the Counter-Reformation, also excommunicated Elizabeth I of England (d. 1572).
1612 – Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax, English Parliamentarian general during the English Civil War (d. 1671).
1706 – Benjamin Franklin, American publisher and politician, 6th President of Pennsylvania (d. 1790).
1806 – Thomas Jefferson‘s daughter, Martha, gives birth to James Madison Randolph, the first child born in the White House.
1863 – David Lloyd George, English lawyer and politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1945).
1886 – Glenn L. Martin*, American pilot, founded the Glenn L. Martin Company (d. 1955).
1871 – David Beatty*, English admiral at the Battle of Jutland in 1916 (d. 1936).
1899 – Al Capone, American gangster (d. 1947).
1922 – Betty White, American actress, has the longest television career for a female entertainer, the oldest winner of a competitive Grammy Award (The Mary Tyler Moore Show, The Golden Girls).
1928 – Vidal Sassoon*, English-American hairdresser and businessman (d. 2012).
1931 – James Earl Jones*, American actor (Darth Vader, The Lion King, The Great White Hope).
1942 – Muhammad Ali, American boxer.
1962 – Jim Carrey, Canadian-American actor and producer (The Truman Show , Man on the Moon).
1964 – Michelle Obama, American lawyer and activist, 46th US First Lady.
1980 – Zooey Deschanel*, American singer-songwriter and actress (She & Him, Elf, New Girl)

Deaths:

Rutherford B. Hayes (Image Credit: WikiTree)

Juliette Gordon Low (Image Credit: Wikipedia)

Louis Comfort Tiffany (Image Credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

395 – Theodosius I “the Great”, the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. He also made Nicene Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire (d. 347).
1718 – Benjamin Church*, captain of the first Ranger force in America during King Philip’s War (b. 1639).
1874 – Chang and Eng Bunker, Chinese-Thai conjoined twins (b. 1811).
1891 – George Bancroft*, American historian and politician, 17th US Secretary of the Navy, established the US Naval Academy at Annapolis, MD in 1845 (b. 1800).
1893 – Rutherford B. Hayes, 19th US President (b. 1822).
1927 – Juliette Gordon Low*, founder of the Girl Scouts of the USA (b. 1860).
1933 – Louis Comfort Tiffany*, American stained glass artist (b. 1848).
2003 – Richard Crenna*, American actor (b. 1926)
2005 – Virginia Mayo*, American actress (b. 1920) (The Best Years of Our Lives).
2007 – Art Buchwald*, American journalist (b. 1925).
2008 -Bobby Fischer*, American chess player and author (b. 1943).

Other Events:

Catherine de'Medici (Image Credit: WikiTree)

Daniel Morgan (Image Credit: Wikipedia)

Destruction of Warsaw (Image Credit: WIkipedia)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1377 – Pope Gregory XI*, the seventh and last Avignon Pope, moves the Papacy back to Rome. He died one year later, and a rival French Pope Clement VII returned to France after an Italian mob forced the election of an Italian Pope.
1562 – French regent Catherine de’ Medici recognizes the Huguenots by the Edict of Saint-Germain. The law was not registered until after the Massacre of Vassy on March 1, which initiated the first religious war.
1781 – American Revolution: Battle of Cowpens, SC: Continental troops under General Daniel Morgan* defeat British forces under Colonel Banastre Tarleton*, who suffered an 86 percent casualty rate.
1852 – The United Kingdom recognizes the independence of the Boer colonies of the Transvaal.
1893 – US businessmen overthrow the Kingdom of Hawaii and the government of Queen Liliʻuokalani*. Hawaii was annexed by the US 5 years later.
1912 – Captain Robert F. Scott* reaches the South Pole, one month after Roald Amundsen*. Scott and his entire party died during the return trip.
1917 – The United States pays Denmark $25 million for the Virgin Islands.
1944 – World War II: Allied forces launch the first of four assaults on Monte Cassino on the way to Rome. Seizing Rome would ultimately take four months and cost 105,000 Allied casualties.
1945 – World War II: Soviet forces enter the almost completely destroyed Polish city of Warsaw, after waiting for the Germans to defeat the Warsaw Uprising . Auschwitz death camp begins evacuation.
1945 – Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg*, who saved tens of thousands of Jews in Nazi-occupied Hungary, is taken into Soviet custody; he is never publicly seen again.
1950 – The Great Brink’s Robbery – 11 thieves steal more than $2 million from an armored car company’s offices in Boston.
1961 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower delivers a televised farewell address, in which he warns against the “military-industrial complex” and the dangers of deficit spending.
1981 – President of the Philippines Ferdinand Marcos lifts martial law eight years after declaring it.
1991 – Gulf War: Operation Desert Storm begins with airstrikes. Iraq fires 8 Scud missiles into Israel.
1998 – Bill Clinton becomes the first U.S. president to defend against a criminal or civil suit, for sexual harassment. His testimony leads to charges of perjury and obstruction of justice, and impeachment.

Feast day of Saint Anthony* “the Great” (251-356). He is appealed to against infectious diseases, particularly skin diseases.

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