by Bob Fields
On September 1, the 75th Anniversary of the start of World War II in Europe:
1653 – Johann Pachelbel*, German organist, composer, and educator (d. 1706) (Canon in D).
1711 – William IV, Prince of Orange-Nassau, the first hereditary stadtholder of the Netherlands (d. 1759).
1854 – Engelbert Humperdinck*, German composer (not the Welsh singer) (d. 1921) (Hänsel und Gretel).
1866 – James J. Corbett*, “Gentleman Jim”, American boxer, world heavyweight champion (1892-97) (d. 1933).
1875 – Edgar Rice Burroughs, American author (d. 1950) (Tarzan).
1877 – Francis William Aston*, English chemist and physicist, Nobel Prize laureate, discovered isotopes in a large number of non-radioactive elements (d. 1945).
1923 – Rocky Marciano*, American boxer, world heavyweight boxing champion (1952-6) (d. 1969).
1935 – Seiji Ozawa*, Japanese conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra and Vienna State Opera.
1939 – Lily Tomlin*, American actress, producer, and comedienne (Laugh-In, 9 to 5).
1950 – Dr. Phil McGraw, American psychologist, author, and talk show host.
1957 – Gloria Estefan*, Cuban-American singer-songwriter and actress, 7 time Grammy winner (Miami Sound Machine).
1159 – Pope Adrian IV*, the only Englishman to have occupied the papal throne (b. 1100).
1557 – Jacques Cartier, French navigator and explorer, who claimed what is now Canada for France (b. 1491).
1715 – King Louis XIV of France dies after a reign of 72 years—the longest of any major European monarch.
1838 – William Clark, American soldier, explorer, and politician, 4th Governor of Missouri Territory (b. 1770).
1981 – Albert Speer, a close associate of Adolf Hitler who ran the Nazi war machine, dies at a London hospital (b. 1905).
1983 – Korean Air Flight 007 was shot down by a Soviet fighter after the airliner entered Soviet airspace; 269 people were killed.
717 – Siege of Constantinople: The Muslim armada is defeated by the Byzantine navy, halting the Muslim advance into Europe and ensuring the continued survival of Byzantium.
1775 – King George III refuses the Olive Branch Petition, which affirmed American loyalty to Great Britain and expressed hope for reconciliation.
1807 – Aaron Burr, former US Vice President who killed Alexander Hamilton in 1804, is acquitted of treason.
1862 – American Civil War: Battle of Chantilly – Stonewall Jackson attacks the retreating Union Army troops in Virginia. Both Union division commanders were killed. This clears the way for Robert E. Lee to begin his Maryland Campaign.
1864 – American Civil War: Confederate General John Bell Hood evacuates Atlanta, Georgia, ending a four-month siege by General William Tecumseh Sherman. Atlanta falls.
1870 – Franco-Prussian War: the Battle of Sedan: in a decisive Prussian victory, Emperor Napoleon III is captured.
1914 – The last Passenger Pigeon, once the most abundant bird in North America, dies in captivity in the Cincinnati Zoo.
1939 – Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Germany invades Poland, beginning World War II in Europe.
1939 – Adolf Hitler signs an order to begin the systematic euthanasia of mentally ill and disabled people.
1939 – General George C. Marshall becomes Chief of Staff of the United States Army.
1942 – A federal judge in Sacramento, Calif., upholds the wartime detention of Japanese-Americans as well as Japanese nationals.
1969 – A coup in Libya brings Muammar Gadhafi to power.
1974 – The SR-71 Blackbird sets (and still holds) the record for flying from New York to London (1:54:56, 1435 mph, Mach 2.68).
1985 – A joint American-French expedition locates the wreckage of the RMS Titanic.
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