Emperor Marcus Aurelius (Aurelius) Verus

Emperor Marcus Aurelius (Aurelius) Verus

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Emperor Marcus Caesar (Emperor Marcus Aurelius) "Catilius Severus" Verus formerly Aurelius aka Antoninus
Born in Roma, Latiummap
[sibling(s) unknown]
Husband of — married [date unknown] in Italymap
Husband of — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
Husband of — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
Died in Sirmium (Vienna), Austriamap
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Contents

biography

Latin: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus 26 April 121 AD – 17 March 180 AD). Roman Emperor from 161 to 180. He ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus' death in 169. He was the last of the Five Good Emperors, and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers.

Son of an elder Marcus Annius Verus, who gained the rank of senator and praetor. His family originated from Uccibi (modern Espejo) near Corduba (modern Córdoba) in Spain. The family came to prominence and became wealthy through olive oil production in Spain.

He was prefect of Rome and was enrolled as a patrician when Vespasian and Titus were censors. Verus was three times consul. One was under the Emperor Domitian, one in 121 and the other in 126.

After his son Marcus Annius Verus died in 124, the elder Verus adopted and raised Marcus Aurelius and his sister Annia Cornificia Faustina.

Death

Date: 17 MAR 179
Place: Vienna, Austria
Age: 57

Sources

Ancient sources

  • Aelius Aristides. Orationes (Orations).
  • Aurelius Victor. De Caesaribus.
  • Codex Justinianus.
  • Scott, Samuel P., trans. The Code of Justinian, in The Civil Law. 17 vols. 1932. Online at the Constitution Society. Accessed 31 August 2009.
  • Digest.
  • Scott, S.P., trans. The Digest or Pandects in The Civil Law. 17 vols. Cincinnati: Central Trust Company, 1932. Online at the Constitution Society. Accessed 31 August 2009.
  • Cassius Dio. Roman History.
  • Cary, Earnest, trans. Roman History. 9 vols. Loeb ed. London: Heinemann, 1914–27. Online at LacusCurtius. Accessed 26 August 2009.
  • Epitome de Caesaribus.
  • Banchich, Thomas M., trans. A Booklet About the Style of Life and the Manners of the Imperatores. Canisius College Translated Texts 1. Buffalo, NY: Canisius College, 2009. Online at De Imperatoribus Romanis. Accessed 31 August 2009.
  • Fronto, Marcus Cornelius.
  • Haines, Charles Reginald, trans. The Correspondence of Marcus Cornelius Fronto. 2 vols. Loeb ed. London: Heinemann, 1920. Online at the Internet Archive: Vol. 1, 2. Accessed 26 August 2009.
  • Galen.
  • ad Pisonem de Theriaca.
  • de Antidotis.
  • Gellius, Aulus. Noctes Atticae (Attic Nights).
  • Rolfe, J.C., trans. The Attic Nights of Aulus Gellius. 3 vols. Loeb ed. London: Heinemann, 1927–28. Vols. 1 and 2 online at LacusCurtius. Accessed 26 August 2009.
  • Herodian. Ab Excessu Divi Marci (History of the Roman Empire from the Death of Marcus Aurelius).
  • Echols, Edward C., trans. Herodian of Antioch's History of the Roman Empire. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1961. Online at Tertullian and Livius. Accessed 14 September 2009.
  • Institutes.
  • Scott, S.P., trans. Institutes of Gaius in The Civil Law. 17 vols. Cincinnati: Central Trust Company, 1932. Online at the Constitution Society. Accessed 31 August 2009.
  • Lucian.
  • Alexander.
  • Harmon, A.M., trans. The Works of Lucian of Samosata. 9 vols. Loeb ed. London: Heinemann, 1936. Alexander online at Tertullian. Accessed 26 August 2009.
  • Historia Quomodo Conscribenda (The Way to Write History).
  • Fowler, H.W., and H.G., trans. The Works of Lucian of Samosata. 4 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1905. The Way to Write History, in volume 2, online at Sacred Texts, based on the Gutenberg e-text. Accessed 26 August 2009.
  • Imagines (Essays in Portraiture [Images]).
  • Fowler, H.W., and H.G., trans. The Works of Lucian of Samosata. 4 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1905. A Portrait Study, in volume 3, online at Sacred Texts, based on the Gutenberg e-text. Accessed 26 August 2009.
  • Pro Imaginibus (Essays in Portraiture Defended).
  • Fowler, H.W., and H.G., trans. The Works of Lucian of Samosata. 4 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1905. Defence of the 'Portrait-Study', in volume 3, online at Sacred Texts, based on the Gutenberg e-text. Accessed 26 August 2009.
  • Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Meditations.
  • Farquharson, A.S.L., trans. Meditations. New York: Knopf, 1946, rept. 1992.
  • Pausanias. Description of Greece.
  • Jones, W.H.S., and H.A. Omerod, trans. Pausanias' Description of Greece. 4 vols. Loeb ed. London: Heinemann, 1918. Online at Theoi and Perseus at Tufts. Accessed 27 August 2009.
  • Philostratus. Heroicus (On Heroes).
  • Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria (Institutes of Oratory).
  • Butler, H.E., trans. The Orator's Education. 5 vols. Loeb ed. London: Heinemann, 1920–22. Online at LacusCurtius. Accessed 14 September 2009.
  • Scriptores Historiae Augustae (Authors of the Historia Augusta). Historia Augusta (Augustan History).
  • Magie, David, trans. Historia Augusta. 3 vols. Loeb ed. London: Heinemann, 1921–32. Online at LacusCurtius. Accessed 26 August 2009.
  • Birley, Anthony R., trans. Lives of the Later Caesars. London: Penguin, 1976.
  • Themistius. Orationes (Orations).

Modern sources

  • Astarita, Maria L. Avidio Cassio (in Italian). Rome: Edizione di Storia e Letteratura, 1983.
  • Barnes, Timothy D. "Hadrian and Lucius Verus." Journal of Roman Studies 57:1–2 (1967): 65–79.
  • Birley, Anthony R. Marcus Aurelius: A Biography. New York: Routledge, 1966, rev. 1987. ISBN 0-415-17125-3
  • Birley, Anthony R. "Hadrian to the Antonines." In The Cambridge Ancient History Volume XI: The High Empire, A.D. 70–192, edited by Alan Bowman, Peter Garnsey, and Dominic Rathbone, 132–94. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-521-26335-1
  • Champlin, Edward. "The Chronology of Fronto." Journal of Roman Studies 64 (1974): 136–59.
  • Champlin, Edward. Fronto and Antonine Rome. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980. ISBN 0-674-32668-7
  • Furtak, Rick Anthony. "Marcus Aurelius: Kierkegaard's Use and Abuse of the Stoic Emperor." In Kierkegaard and the Roman World, edited by Jon Stewart, 69-74. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, 2009. ISBN 978-0-7546-6554-0
  • Millar, Fergus. The Roman Near East: 31 BC – AD 337. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-674-77886-3
  • McLynn, Frank. Marcus Aurelius: Warrior, Philosopher, Emperor. London: Bodley Head, 2009. ISBN 978-0-224-07292-2 online review
  • Stephens, William O. Marcus Aurelius: A Guide for the Perplexed. London: Continuum, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4411-2561-3
  • Stertz, Stephen A. "Marcus Aurelius as Ideal Emperor in Late-Antique Greek Thought." The Classical World 70:7 (1977): 433–39.
  • Syme, Ronald. "The Ummidii." Historia 17:1 (1968): 72–105.

Template:Refend

Footnotes


Acknowledgments

  • Created on 18 February 2011 through the import of Bishop Family Tree.ged.
  • Created through the import of breesefam.ged on 09 May 2011.
  • Created through the import of breesefam.ged on 09 May 2011.
  • Created through the import of breesefam.ged on 09 May 2011.
  • Created through the import of breesefam.ged on 09 May 2011.
  • Created through the import of breesefam.ged on 09 May 2011.
  • Created through the import of Smith-Hunter.ged on 10 March 2011.
  • Aurelius-6 created through the import of Main Tree_2011-07-30_2011-08-30.ged on Aug 30, 2011 by Sharryn Hopgood.







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On October 31, 2013 Eowyn Langholf wrote:

I'm going off the Encyclopedia Britannica source so we can get some dates added to our good Caesar here.