Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale (Robert de Brus), 5th Lord ofAnnandale, was a feudal lord, Justice and Constable of Scotland andEngland, a Regent of Scotland, and a leading competitor to be King ofScotland in 1290-92 in the Great Cause.
Robert was son of Robert Bruce, 4th Lord of Annandale and Isobel ofHuntingdon, the second daughter of David of Scotland, 8th Earl ofHuntingdon and Matilda de Kevilloc of Chester. David in turn was theson of Henry of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumberland andAda de Warenne; Henry's parents were King David I of Scotland and Maudof Northumberland.
In addition to Annandale, Robert was Lord of Hartlepool in countyDurham and Writtle and Hatfield Broadoak in Essex, England. His firstwife brought to him the village of Ripe, in Sussex, and his secondwife the Lordship of Ireby in Cumberland,
His possessions were later increased following the defeat of Simon deMontfort at the Battle of Evesham (1265), via a series of grants thatincluded the estates of the former rebel barons Walter de Fauconbergand John de Melsa. Henry III also re-appointed Robert a Justice, andConstable of Carlisle Castle and keeper of the Castle there in 1267, aposition he had been dissmissed from in 1255, for his support duringthe rebellion.
It is believed Robert joined the princes Edward and Edmund on their1270-4 crusade, as his sons failed to attend.
He succeeded in having the young widowed Marjorie of Carrick, heiressof that earldom, married to his son, another Robert Bruce in 1271. Shewas the daughter of Niall, 2nd Earl of Carrick.
Robert Bruce was Regent of Scotland some time during minority of hissecond cousin King Alexander III of Scotland (1241-1286) and wasoccasionally recognised as a Tanist of the Scottish throne. He was theclosest surviving male relative to the king: Margaret of Huntingdon'sissue were all females up until birth of Hugh Balliol sometime in the1260s. When Alexander yet was childless, he was officially named asheir-presumptive, but never gained the throne as Alexander managed tobeget three children. The succession in the main line of the House ofDunkeld became highly precarious when towards the end of Alexander'sreign, all three of his children died within a few years. Themiddle-aged Alexander III induced in 1284 the Estates to recognise ashis heir-presumptive his granddaughter Margaret, called the "Maid ofNorway", his only surviving descendant. The need for a male heir ledAlexander to contract a second marriage to Yolande de Dreux on 1November 1285. All this was eventually in vain. Alexander diedsuddenly, in a fall from his horse, when only 45 years old, in 1286.His death ushered in a time of political upheaval for Scotland. Histhree-year old granddaughter Margaret, who lived in Norway, wasrecognised as his successor. However, the then 7-year old heiressMargaret died, travelling towards her kingdom, on the Orkney Islandsaround 26 September 1290. With her death, the main royal line came toan end and thirteen claimants asserted their rights to the ScottishThrone.
After this extinction of the senior line of the Scottish royal house(the line of William I of Scotland) David of Huntingdon's descendantswere the primary candidates for the throne. The two most notableclaimants to the throne, John Balliol and Robert himself (grandfatherof Robert The Bruce) represented descent through David's daughtersMargaret and Isobel respectively.
Robert Bruce pleaded tanistry and proximity of blood in the successiondispute. He descended from the second daughter of David of Huntingdon,whereas John Balliol descended from the eldest, and thus had thelineal right. However, Robert was a second cousin of kings of Scotlandand descended in 4th generation from King David I of Scotland, whereasJohn Balliol was a third cousin of kings and descended in 5thgeneration from King David I, the most recent common ancestor who hadbeen Scottish king. The ensuing 'Great Cause' was concluded in 1292.It gave the Crown of Scotland to his family's great rival, JohnBalliol. The events took place as follows:
Soon after the death of young queen Margaret, Robert Bruce raised abody of men with the help of the Earls of Mar and Atholl and marchedto Perth with a considerable following and uncertain intentions.Bishop Fraser of St. Andrews, worried of the possibility of civil war,wrote to Edward, asking for his assistance in choosing a new monarch.
Edward took this chance to demand sasine of the Scottish royal estate,but agreed to pass judgment in return for recognition of hissuzerainty. The guardians of Scotland denied him this, but RobertBruce was quick to pay homage. All the claimants swore oaths ofhomage, and John Balliol was the last to do so. The guardians wereforced to concede and were thus reinstated by Edward.
Judgment processed slowly. On 3 August 1291 Edward asked both Ballioland Bruce to choose forty auditors while he himself chose twenty-four,to decide the case. After considering all of the arguments, in earlyNovember the court decided in favour of John Balliol, having thesuperior claim in feudal law, not to mention greater support from thekingdom of Scotland. In accordance with this, final judgement wasgiven by Edward on 17 November. On 30 November, John Balliol wascrowned as King of Scots at Scone Abbey. On 26 December, at Newcastleupon Tyne, King John swore homage to Edward I for the kingdom ofScotland. Edward soon made it clear that he regarded the country ashis vassal state. The Bruce family thus lost what they regarded astheir rightful place on the Scottish throne.
(Edward I decided in favour of the senior legitimate heir byprimogeniture, John Balliol but in 1306 the crown was assumed by agrandson of the Bruce himself, who became King Robert I. In doingthis, the rightful heir, John Balliol's own son, was smitten by hisfather's misfortune of having been placed on the throne in aninopportune period.)
Robert, 5th Lord of Annandale resigned the lordship of Annandale tohis son, the Earl of Carrick, as well as his claim to the Crown.Shortly after this, Robert's daughter-in-law Marjorie died in 1292,and on the day of her death his son transferred Carrick to his eldestgrandson, the future Robert I of Scotland thus making the boy the Earlof Carrick.
In 1292 Robert V de Brus held a market at Ireby, Cumberland, in rightof his wife. The following year he had a market at Hartlepool, countyDurham within the liberties of the Bishop of Durham.
Sir Robert de Brus died at Lochmaben Castle and was buried atGisborough Priory.
He married firstly 12 May 1240:
Isabella, (2 November 1226- after 10 July 1264), daughter of Gilbertde Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford and 1st Earl of Gloucester and LadyIsabel Marshal of Pembroke, with issue:
Isabel (b. 1249 - c1284), married (as his first wife) Sir JohnFitzMarmaduke, Knt., of Horden, Eighton, Lamesley, Ravensholm, andSilksworth, county Durham, Sheriff of North Durham, and Joint Wardenbeyond the Scottish Sea between the Forth and Orkney. He fought on theEnglish side at the Battle of Falkirk, 22 July 1298, and was presentat the Siege of Caerlaverock Castle in 1300. In 1307 he was commandedto assist the Earl of Richmond in expelling Robert de Brus and theScottish rebels from Galloway. In 1309 his armour and provisions in avessel bound for Perth were arrested off Great Yarmouth. He wasgovernor of St. John's Town (Perth) in 1310 until his death. Isabelwas buried at Easington, County Durham.
Robert VI the Bruce, Earl of Carrick (1253 - 1304)
Constance (b. 1251), married Sir William Scot de Calverley and haddaughter, Clarissa Scott (m. Sir John Fairfax)
He married, secondly on 3 May 1275 at Hoddam, in the diocese ofGlasgow:
Christina (d. 1305), daughter and heiress of Sir William de Ireby ofIreby, Cumberland. They had no issue.
Bio notes: robert bruce lord of annandale
died lochmarben castle, regent of scotland
Great-great grandson of David I, King of Scotland. Lord of Annadale
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Name: Robert /De Clare/
Given Name: Robert
Surname: De Clare
Married Name: Bruce
An explicit Surname and Married Name were both found.
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↑ Source: #S125 Page: Database online. Data: Text: Record for Robert 6th Lord Annandale De Brus