Henry I (Normandie) England

Henry I (Normandie) England

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Henry I "Beauclerc, King of England" England formerly Normandie aka of England, FitzWilliam, Normandy, Normandie, of Normandy
Born in Selby, Yorkshire, Englandmap
Husband of — married [date unknown] in Not Married!map
Husband of — married [location unknown]
Husband of — married in Windsor Castle, Berkshire, Englandmap
Died in Eure, Normandy, Francemap
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Categories: Battle of Tinchebray | This Day In History August 02 | This Day In History December 01 | House of Normandie.


The House of Normandie crest. This person is a member of the House of Normandie.
badges This person was a member of royalty, nobility or aristocracy in the British Isles. If you are interested in this profile, see our British Isles Royals and Aristocrats 742-1499 Project.
Preceded by
William II "Rufus"
King of the English
2 Aug 1100 – 1 Dec 1135
Succeeded by
Stephen

Contents

Important Notice

Please do not merge Named Mistresses as Unknown Mistresses.

Biography

Henry I was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and Matilda. He was nicknamed "Beauclerc,"[1]he had an above average education. He had the longest reign of the Norman line, lasting thirty-five years.

His first wife was Eadgyth[2], daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland. They had two sons and Adelaide, who became the Empress Matilda. Both sons died, one in youth and William in the the White Ship wreck.[3] Adelaide became the sole heir, but was usurped by Stephen during The Anarchy.

After Eadgyth died,[4] Henry married Adelaide of Louvain but had no children. Henry also had two fairly significant illegitimate children: Robert de Mellent, Earl of Gloucester, and Sibylla, wife of the Scottish King Alexander I.

Vitals

Henry I 'Beauclerc' of Normandy
King of the English (1068-1135) / 1100-1135:
Reigned 1100-1135. Duke of Normandy 1106-1135.[5]
Nickname: Beauclerc
Alias: "Lion of Justice"
b. SEP 1068 Selby, Yorkshire
Christening: 5 AUG 1100 Selby, Yorkshire
d. 01 DEC 1135 St Denis, Seine-St Denis[6][7][8][9]
burial: Reading Abbey, Reading, Berks[7][10]

Family

m. Matilda (Edith) of Scotland Edith (d. 01 May 11118) m. 11 Nov 1100 Westminster Abbey[6]
dau. and heir: Empress Matilda (Adelaide)
son: William (d. White Ship disaster)
son: Richard of Normandy
m.2 Adeliza of Louvain 29 JAN 1121 Windsor Castle[6]
no issue

Fourteen Mistresses

  1. Unknown woman from Caen mother of Robert de Caen aka Robert FitzRoy, Earl of Gloucester
  2. Edith Unknown mother of Mathilde w/o Routrou de Perche
  3. Ansfride widow of Anskill mother of Richard, Juliane & Foulques
  4. Unknown mother of Sybil Queen of Scotland & William
  5. Sibyl Corbet married Herbert FitzHerbert mother of Renaud de Dunstanville, William, & Gundred, Rohese
  6. Edith FitzForne d/o Forn Sigurdson Lord of Greystoke, Cumberland m. Robert De Oilly of Hook Norton mother of Robert FitzEdith
  7. 7-12. All Unknown. Mothers to: Maud (m. Conan III Duke of Brittany),
  8. Alix (m. MATHIEU [I] de Montmorency) Constance (Mathilde) (m ROSCELIN Vicomte de Beaumont) Mathilde abbess of Montvilliers Gilbert William de Tracy
  9. Nest of South Wales wife of Gerald FitzWalter of Windsor d/o Rhys apTewdwr Prince of South Wales and Gwladus mother of Henry 14 Unknown mother of unknown daughter (m GUILLAUME [III] Goët de Montmirail) 15 Isabelle de Beaumont d/o Robert de Beaumont Comte de Meulan, Earl of Leicester and Isabelle de Vermandois and wife of Gilbert FitzGilbert de Clare Earl of Pembroke mother of Isabel

Illegitimate Children

24 acknowledged children. He had the largest recorded illegitimate children of any English king.[11]

Reign

Henry was drawn into controversy with the Church over the lay investiture issue,[12] opposed by its reformers. He ignored the situation until threatened with excommunication by Pope Paschal II in 1105. Reaching a compromise with the papacy, he officially denounced the practice but prelates continued to do homage for their fiefs. In practice, it changed little,[13]
Henry mixed generosity with violence in motivating allegiance to the crown, appointing loyal and gifted men to administrative positions.[14] His final years focused on war with France and succession. Matilda was the only surviving legitimate heir. She was recalled to Henry's court in 1125 after the death of her husband, Henry forced barons to accept Matilda as Queen upon Henry's death. She was then forced to marry sixteen-year-old Geoffrey of Anjou in 1128 to continue the Angevin alliance.[15]

Links


Footnotes

  1. Beauclerc means fine scholar.
  2. Later named Matilda
  3. d. Nov 1120
  4. Eadgyth (d.1118)
  5. The first years of Henry's reign were concerned with subduing Normandy. His father divided his kingdoms between Henry's older brothers, leaving England to William and Normandy to Robert. Henry inherited no land, but received ú5000 in silver. He played both sides in his brothers' quarrel, leading both to distrust Henry, and sign a mutual accession treaty barring their brother from the crown.

    Henry's hope arose when Robert went on the First Crusade; should William die, Henry would be the obvious choice. Henry was in the woods hunting on the morning of William's death, August 2, 1100. He moved quickly and was crowned king on August 5, his coronation charter denouncing William's oppressive policies and promising good government. Robert returned to Normandy a few weeks later, but escaped final defeat until 1106, at the Battle of Tinchebrai. Robert was captured and lived the remaining twenty-eight years of his life as Henry's prisoner.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2
    Ancestral Roots. Fredrick Weis; 7th ed. 1992.
  7. 7.0 7.1 S96
  8. Cause: Food poisoning from Lampreys
  9. Royalty for Commoners, Roderick W. Stuart, Gen. Pub. Co., Balt. 1992, p68.
  10. Abbey is in ruins. Henry's bones scattered from destruction and reconstruction.
  11. Henry's family isthe sort to give genealogists nightmares: married twice (once to the sister of his son-in-law), with 4 legitimate offspring, he also had bastards throughout Britain, France, and probably half of Europe.
  12. Practice of selling clergy appointments by the king to gain revenue.
  13. King still appointed ecclesiastical offices but it a marked a point when kingship was viewed as purely secular and subservient to the Church. A solution to the lay investiture controversy and conquest of Normandy were accomplished in 1106, allowing Henry to expand his power.
  14. Roger of Salisbury, the most famous of Henry's servants, was instrumental in organizing a department for collection of royal revenues, the Exchequer. The Exchequer quickly gained notoriety for sending out court officials to judge local financial disputes, weakening feudal courts, and won the title "Lion of Justice".
  15. Matilda's marriage to Geoffrey of Anjou was unpopular with the Norman barons, but Matilda and Geoffrey produced a male heir, prompting Henry to force another oath from the barons in support of Matilda. In summer 1135, Henry refused to give custody of certain key Norman castles to Geoffrey, as a show of good will, and the pair entered into war. Henry's life ended in this sorry state of affairs - war with his son-in-law - in December 1135.

Sources

  • [Eula Maria McKeaig II - 061204.FTW]
  • Brian Tompsett's Royal Database
  • March, 1929 NYC - Rev. March 1980. Royal Line, The. Albert F Schmuhl
  • March 25, 2001. Royal and Noble Genealogical Data. Brian Tompsett
  • Some English Descendants of Malcome Canmore King Of the Scots RJCW 307. Gregory Lauder-Frost F.S.A. ((lauderfrost@@btinternet.com)
  • The Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Ed, 1999, pp: 161-9.
  • Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on Henry I
  • Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Ed, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999. pp: 262-27, 33a-23






Memories: 4

On December 4, 2011 Roger Wehr wrote:

Marlborough, England INFORMATION:

In 1067, William the Conqueror assumed control of the Marlborough area and set about building a wooden motte and bailey castle, sited on the prehistoric mound. This was completed in around 1100. Stone was used to strengthen the castle in around 1175. The first written record of Marlborough dates from the Domesday Book in 1087. William also established a mint in Marlborough, which coined the William I and the early William II silver pennies. The coins display the name of the town as Maerlebi or Maerleber.

He also established the neighbouring Savernake Forest as a favourite Royal hunting ground and Marlborough Castle became a Royal residence. Henry I observed Easter here in 1110. Henry II stayed at Marlborough Castle in talks with the King of Scotland.

Later Henry III was also married here. Henry III held Parliament here, in 1267, when the Statute of Marlborough was passed (this gave rights and privileges to small land owners and limited the right of the King to take possession of land). This seven-hundred-year-old law states that no-one shall seize his neighbour's goods for alleged wrong without permission of the Court. Apart from Charters, it is the oldest statute in English law which has not yet been repealed.



On December 3, 2011 Roger Wehr wrote:


On December 3, 2011 Roger Wehr wrote:

Name: King Henry I

Born: September, 1068 at Selby, Yorkshire Parents: William I and Matilda of Flanders Relation to Elizabeth II: 24th great-grandfather House of: Normandy Ascended to the throne: August 3, 1100 aged 31 years Crowned: August 6, 1100 at Westminster Abbey Married: (1) Edith (Matilda), Daughter of Malcolm III (2) Adelicia, Daughter of Geoffrey VII, count of Louvain Children: Daughter Matilda, son William, and reputedly around 20 illegitimate children Died: December 2, 1135 at St Denis le Fermont, Normandy, aged 67 years, 2 months, and 29 days Buried at: Reading Reigned for: 35 years, 3 months, and 28 days Succeeded by: his nephew Stephen

King of England from 1100. Youngest son of William the Conqueror, he succeeded his brother William II. He won the support of the Saxons by granting them a charter and marrying a Saxon princess, Edith, daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland. She was known as Matilda after her marriage, a name more acceptable to the Norman Barons than her Saxon name Edith. Henry's daughter was also called Matilda. He was an able administrator, and established a professional bureaucracy and a system of travelling judges. He was called Beauclerc because of his scholarly interests.

In 1101 his elder brother Robert, Duke of Normandy, attempted to seize the crown by invading England. However, after the Treaty of Alton, Robert agreed to recognise his brother Henry as King and returned to Normandy. They fought again in 1106 at Battle of Tinchebrai at which Robert was captured and Henry became Duke of Normandy as well as King of England. Henry's only legitimate son and heir, William, was drowned in 1120 in wreck of the White Ship and Henry tried to settle the succession on his daughter Matilda and her son Henry (later Henry II). However, Matilda widow of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, was unpopular when she re-married into the House of Anjou rival of the House of Normandy. The throne was taken by Henry's nephew Stephen, who, towards the end of his reign, agreed to adopt Matilda's son as his heir.

Henry died in Normandy in 1135 of food poisoning according to legend from eating a 'surfeit of Lampreys' (an eel type fish).



On November 12, 2011 Roger Wehr wrote:

Henry I (circa 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I of England. He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose, to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. A later tradition called him Beauclerc for his scholarly interests— he could read Latin and put his learning to effective use— and Lion of Justice for refinements which he brought about in the royal administration, which he rendered the most effective in Europe, rationalizing the itinerant court, and his public espousal of the Anglo-Saxon legal tradition.

Henry's reign established deep roots for the Anglo-Norman realm, in part through his dynastic (and personal) choice of a Scottish princess who represented the lineage of Edmund Ironside for queen. His succession was hurriedly confirmed while his brother Robert was away on the First Crusade, and the beginning of his reign was occupied by wars with Robert for control of England and Normandy. He successfully reunited the two realms again after their separation on his father's death in 1087. Upon his succession he granted the baronage a Charter of Liberties, which linked his rule of law to the Anglo-Saxon tradition, forming a basis for subsequent limitations to the rights of English kings and presaged Magna Carta, which subjected the king to law.

The rest of Henry's reign, a period of peace and prosperity in England and Normandy, was filled with judicial and financial reforms. He established the biannual Exchequer to reform the treasury. He used itinerant officials to curb the abuses of power at the local and regional level that had characterized William Rufus' unpopular reign, garnering the praise of the monkish chroniclers. The differences between the English and Norman populations began to break down during his reign and he himself married a descendant of the old English royal house. He made peace with the church after the disputes of his brother's reign and the struggles with Anselm over the English investiture controversy (1103-07), but he could not smooth out his succession after the disastrous loss of his eldest son William in the wreck of the White Ship. His will stipulated that he was to be succeeded by his daughter, the Empress Matilda, but his stern rule was followed by a period of civil war known as the Anarchy.



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DNA Connections
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Collaboration

On April 10, 2014 Bree Ogle wrote:

Moved Darlene Hill's notes on illegitimate children to official Mistress/Children profile (UNKNOWN-33840). Needs to be edited for copyright issues.


On December 19, 2013 Anonymous Anonymous wrote:

I assume that there is an existing PPP for him, but haven't looked for duplicates yet.


On November 30, 2013 Barbara Bonanni wrote:

Have removed them as spouses as yes, she was a mistress. Still need him added as Henry FitzRoys father. Thank you


On November 30, 2013 Roger Travis wrote:

Hi; what are the sources for this profile's being linked to Henry I? Even if she was his mistress, she shouldn't be linked as his wife.


On February 5, 2012 Roger Travis wrote:

This is a final profile, as determined by the European Aristocracy user-group. Any merges will go INTO this profile.


On March 22, 2011 Krissi Love wrote:

Known as "Beauclerc".




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