When the first group of seven Astronauts was selected, of course none were women. A couple of years later, a second group was going to be selected to expand the corps. Following much pressure to include women (with arguments that they are inherently better qualified by virtue of lower weight, smaller size, and better psychological response to solitude), applications were solicited from women, from which one was to be selected.
I was in college at the time with major in aerospace engineering and fully met requirements for math/science academic background, competitive diving and summer jobs as a lifeguard met requirement of strong swimming skills. I hoped that I would be at the top in those areas to make up for the lack of my piloting experience and I applied with great excitement.
First I received a letter saying that I was one of the 1,000 initially selected from the 10,000 applications and was invited to take a full day test of academic, psychological, and ability. After that, I received a letter saying that I was one of the 100 still in consideration and was invited to Washington, DC for a complete physical and water skill testing. I responded and informed them that my name had changed because I had just gotten married. They wrote back and said that I was no longer eligible because they would not consider a married woman.
If not for the fact that I expected to fail the vision test, I probably would have had the fastest annulment in history. Funny - all the men in the first group were married. This happened in 1962.