There's no monarchy-in-exile or member of the old regime using the title. Puyi, the final Emperor of China, was forced to abdicate in 1912 due to the Xinhai Revolution, briefly restored for two weeks in 1917 by a loyalist before being again forced to abdicate, and he eventually fled with his wife in 1924. the current People's Republic of mainland China properly established itself in 1949 after an earlier Republic in the interim, and is now a unitary one-party 'socialist' republic. Puyi was only six when he was forced to abdicate, and there have never (as far as I'm aware) been any claimants to the title since.
Yes, Cixi died in 1908, but she was not still Empress Dowager at the time. The Emperor at the time of the Revolution, Puyi, was her great-grandson - she was married to Xianfeng, the eighth Qing Emperor, and Puyi was the eleventh.