There are two profiles: your wikitree profile, and your G2G profile.
Points are accumulated as you modify the tree with your entries for wikitree: and badges are awarded monthly based on the previous month's contributions. I haven't uploaded a GEDCOM, so can't fully comment on that: but from what I have read, the points appear to occur after a background merge happens by "mergebot".
G2G points accumulate as you post questions, comment on questions, or vote on questions. I don't know when those badges are awarded: it's likely either as they are earned (the G2G6), or perhaps monthly while others (for wikitree) are created. As the two sites are linked, but different (and one requires signing up/in/etc, the other doesn't): I would assume they are different.
This is inferred by the behaviors I have seen, not by reading any source code.