I believe I have answered my own question, and the answer is "Yes," but I want to share the story because others of you may want to weigh in on the subject and because the same situation might affect other profiles.
There are two records for baptisms of Blandina, a daughter of Abraham Van Aken (aka Van Aaken or Van Auken) and his wife Jannetje De Witt. The first record is from 1743 in the Minisink Valley (New York) and the second is from 1747 in Kingston, New York. Both baptisms had the same pair of witnesses. The obvious interpretation is that the first Blandina died and a later daughter was given the same name.
However, there is a marriage record for Blandina Van Aken (presumed to be the same person; this name is not one that was repeated much) in Minisink in 1757, followed by christenings of children, beginning in 1759. Girls married early in the New Netherland community, but not at age 10, so something seems to be wrong. Additionally, family genealogist Robert Van Auken pointed out that the same parents had another daughter baptized earlier in 1747; he suggested that something was wrong with the data.
I wondered if one child could have been baptized twice, possibly because someone in the family didn't think the first baptism was good enough. I believe that is exactly what happened. It seems that there were irregularities in the original ordination of the domine (minister) who performed the baptism in 1743 (or more likely in 1742; there is some confusion about the dates in the Minisink records for that period), Johannes Casparus Fryenmoet. (This is discussed in the ''Minisink Valley Reformed Church Records'' book published in 1913, beginning on page xxiii.) Ecclesiastical authorities eventually agreed to his ordination, but there was a cloud over his actions during an earlier period. Eleven baptisms he performed during that period -- including the "1743" baptism of Blandina -- were apparently deemed to have been illegal (and several baptisms were stricken through in pencil in the oringal record, but they weren't necessarily the ones that were invalidated). The Minisink Valley Reformed Church Records book states (on p. xxvi) that there was no record (in Minisink) of these children being rebaptized, but it would seem that Blandina was rebaptized in Kingston.
Accordingly, I conclude that there was just one Blandina, and she was baptized twice.