I believe he was:
1850 Census - he's at home with his parents
"United States Census, 1850," database with images, FamilySearch(https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M8Q8-L1P : 9 November 2014), Edward Spearman in household of David Spearman, Anderson county, Anderson, South Carolina, United States; citing family 841, NARA microfilm publication M432 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
1860 - look at his address:
"United States Census, 1860", database with images, FamilySearch(https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MZT4-78P : 30 December 2015), Edward Spearman, 1860.
42nd Regiment, Anderson, South Carolina, United States
Need more concrete info, but it looks like he very likely was in the Confederate Army.