I tried to work this and it seems there are more than One Joel Dyer. The one you are wanting I believe is one born 1811 - died 1883 in Vermillion, Indiana. This is the one that had the wife as Anna last name unknown. There is one Joel Dyer born 1809 that died in Montague, Texas who has a son named Joel F. Dyer. I got them confused myself and had to start all over. So it is easy mixing these people up. I believe also that Joel Dyer and Anna got married about 1833 -1835. because in 1850 Edmonson Co, Ky Joel Dyer was 39 years old and Anna Dyer was 31 years old. Their first Daughter was born in 1835 and they had 6 children from 1835 to 1848. Anna is not listed on the census from 1860 to 1870.So I believe that she died between 1860 and 1870. In 1860 Vermillion, Ind. It lists Joel Dyer (Dger) name misspelled. He was 49 years old, Graden Dger B. 1828; Newton Dger age 12 b. 1848; Eliza Dger -age 9, b.1851; Markus Dger - age 7 b.1853; Viola Dger age 5 b. 1855; Victoria Dger age 6 months b. 1859-1860
1880 Census Hunter Edge, Ill
Joel Dyer b. 1811 white male widower- age 69; Winford Dyer age 13 - son; Newton Dyer - age 32; Mattie Dyer - age 29; Mark Bodine age 29; Viola Dyer Bodine -age 25; Leo Bodine -age 1
So I hope this helps you, I wasn't sure who his father is but on Ancestry.com on the Family tree pages it said that his father was Hugh Martin Dyer born 1776- and died 1876 and his wife is Nancy Huff Dyer 1780 - 1811. My guess she died during childbirth.
There is another Joel Dyer born 1808- died 1894. He is buried at the Hardy Cemetery in Montague Co. Texas Find a grave # 50741734.
There is also another Joel Dyer born in Tennessee. and I also think that he died in Tennessee. The Joel Dyer born 1811- and died 1883 was born Dec. 27, 1811 died March 7,1883 Vermillion Co, INd. Spangler Cemetery. Find a grave 81954642.
I am not sure that this is the one you want but it is the one I believe that was married to Anna ? first. I also believe that the familytree pages on Ancestry for Joel Dyer is also some are wrong. It was hard to understand and there were only about 2 of the trees that had Anna down as a spouse, And they said her last name was Phipps. But I went back on Ancestry to confirm that and I wasn't able to do that. So her last name is still a mystery unless we can find the exact marriage license and if she is using the name Anna or Amy. None of the family tree pages were right.
Let me know if this helps or if you need more help. Nancy