Okay, I think I sorted this out. Eddie's inclusion of the link to the published Chesebro (var. spellings) genealogy helped. (Although this is one of those late 19th century genealogies without sources, so what's included needs confirming through other sources.) The book has an index at the back, which is how I found the people and the page numbers.
Alexandra, you were on the right track. In that entire book, there are only three Ambrose Chesebro's. And one did indeed marry a Sarah.
- Ambrose Cheesebro-44, son of Daniel, is on page 260; no locations or dates are included for Daniel's children on this page; and the book takes this line no further. Daniel was son of Elisha, and page 258 says Elisha was of North Adams, Mass. The profile you link to above, Alexandra, was for this family. Census records (not the ones you found) indicate this family ended up in Pulaski, Michigan. According to Cheesebro-44, this Ambrose was born 3 Dec 1812. Note: the vital records of North Adams (and some surrounding towns) were burnt in a fire.
- Ambrose Chesebro, son of Peleg, is found on p. 230. The book indicates Peleg was born in Schoharie, NY, and his son Ambrose b 4 Jan 1815, m. Sarah van Auken. Ambrose's line is continued on p. 231, where it says Sarah was the daughter of James van Auken and wife Nancy. The children of this Ambrose were born in Knox, NY and the family supposedly settled in Wright, NY. Alexandra, the census records you found appear to be associated with this branch. I have not yet found a set of wikitree profiles for this family. There are numerous spelling variations which make searching here difficult.
- One page 231, we find one more Ambrose, born 24 Mar 1865, son of (go back to p 230), son of Sherman and grandson of Ambrose #2 above. This line is not continued in the book.
Because of the rareness of the name Ambrose, I would have expected to find close relatedness between the fathers of #1 and #2, but Peleg (son of Christopher) hails from Stonington, CT and Daniel (son of Elisha) hails from North Adams, MA. The connection must be further up the line.
Alexandra, your search and your question here is having a good result. Because of it, we will be able to distinguish these two Ambroses, born within a few years of each other. Thank you.