Normally, the death record names the father or spouse, as you noted, and not the mother. I suspect, this may be the case of a child of an unwed mother. If I read the record correctly, the child was only 5 years old.
In marriage records of illegitimate persons, often the record names the mother as daughter with the father’s name given (ie, Rosina daughter of Maria Schmidt, daughter of Josef Schmidt”); however I do not see that kind of language here. Thus there is no relationship implied in the wording of this record.
Perhaps someone can add to, or correct, my interpretation of this record?