Oh, Peggy, before that it was just patronymics. We kept them that long in Sweden. Before my great grandfather Johannes Pettersson, who adopted the surname Ekeblad, it was Petter Andreasson, son of Andreas Svensson, son of Sven Persson, son of Per Larsson, son of Lars Svensson, son of Sven Larsson (born about 1655) - that's the male line, but most of my tree is like that, except for the smiths and charcoal makers who tended to have family names at an early time.
Three of five brothers Pettersson surviving to adult age left the family farm in Eklanda to become teachers (or salesmen) - they jointly adopted the name Ekeblad as an association with theit village of origin. And, I suspect, as a tongue-in-cheek to the expired noble family of the same name - there was a brief window in time when names of expired noble families were not as strongly protected as earlier and later.
So, as a Swedish genealogist I'm somehow not expecting family names to last forever and ever - but I also find the notion of family names going extinct somewhat alien. They can be picked up again. The rules at present in Sweden are fairly severe, but people do change surnames. And invent new ones (that have to pass the tests).