I've recently added a profile to Wikitree for an Australian WW1 soldier who clearly had issues with authority. He was sentenced to 30 days Field Punishment No 2 in France. As I understand it, this involved wearing restraints (fetters or handcuffs or both, or rope or leather equivalents while undertaking hard labour.) He was killed in action before the 30 days had elapsed, so presumably he was still carrying out the punishment.
Is it likely he died in restraints, or was there "wriggle room" in application of the punishment if they were under fire?
(I note another soldier from the same unit who died at the same date/location had an unblemished records, so perhaps a minder?)