Tarboro, North Carolina where this family lived is about 400 miles from the where the Cherokee lived. The marriage record for Whitmell and Louisa identifies both as "colored."
"North Carolina, County Marriages, 1762-1979 ," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:QPS9-5DGP : 28 November 2018), Whitmell Or Whitmel Anderson and Louisa Or Louiza Jones, 23 Feb 1851; citing Edgecombe, North Carolina, United States, p. , North Carolina State Archives Division of Archives and History; FHL microfilm .
You can see the actual record on Family Search. Everyone in the family is listed as mulatto on the 1870 census, but in 1880 they are living in a different town and are listed as white. Annie, Lucy, and Maggie are all listed as white in the 1900 census.
I think you have the names confused. Whitmell Anderson married Louisa Jones. According to her death certificate their daughter Mahala Ann Anderson was married to a man named Joe Anderson. She had a son also named Joe Anderson. Ann and her children appear together on the 1900 census.
"United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MSY8-KPP : accessed 22 September 2020), Ann Anderson in household of William B Hendricks, Township 6, Upper Fishing Creek Whitaker town (prt.), Edgecombe, North Carolina, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 7, sheet 6B, family 118, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,241,194.