Hi Patricia, thank you for responding. I realize that Calvin (b. 1846) is quite a bit younger than Perry (b. 1820) and could be his son, but the census indicates that Calvin is the brother of the head of household. I agree, that it makes more sense if Calvin is the brother of Perry P. (b. 1852) and as we all know, the censuses often have errors. But that presents another problem. If you look at the 1860 census on Perry P.'s profile you will find that, though other siblings are shown, it does not show Calvin, who would have been about 14 then. It is possible that he went with his father (if Perry was his father) to the gold mines in California, but there is also a sister of Perry P., Louisa, who would have been born in about 1846. Another issue... How is it that Calvin was born in Iowa? The 1880 census shows his parents were both born in Pennsylvania. Perry and Mary Jane and all of their other children were born in Pennsylvania, and most of them ended up in California. I hope you (or someone) can come up with better answers than I have. Thank you for your help!