Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин was born about 1799 (26 May old style; 6 June by western calendar), and was the son of Sergei Lvovich Pushkin & Nadezha (Nadya) Ossipovna Gannibal, who were both of noble families. His lineage is outlined to some degree on wikipedia. 
Alexander married Natalia Goncharova and together they had four children: Maria, Alexander, Grigory, and Natalia, who married into the royal house of Nassau and became the Countess of Merenberg. The husband of her granddaughter Nadejeda, was the uncle of Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, and husband of Queen Elizabeth II.  Alexander adored Natalia, but so did one George D’Anthès-Heeckeren, a French royalist. Eventually Alexander challenged him to a duel to finish the conflict, but lost.
Alexander started writing poetry while still a youth attending the aristocratic school, Lyceum at Tsarskoe Selo. He didn't have a particular specialty at the time and his interests were varied, including Russian Neoclassicism and French works.
Following his graduation, Alexander moved to St. Petersburg and spent his time enjoying the social life. His works from this time reflect his disdain for government officials. His first major work was created during this time; a fairy tale based on Russian history, Ruslan i Liudmila.
Not long after publishing the poem, Alexander went into exile in Southern Russia due to his political views, sympathizing with Decemberists, who were pushing for a constitution and social freedom. He continued to publish poems, but his next major work, Evgeny Onegin (Eugene Onegin). which was considered his masterpiece, took him seven years to write. Alexander invented a new poetic stanza for the work, the iambic tetrameter with alternating feminine and masculine lines. Though not intentionally autobiographical, the poem ended up being so, as the poem's protagonist, Eugene, also dies in a duel. It also is considered an "encyclopedia of Russian life", putting into words what life was like during Alexander's lifetime.
Pushkin's theme set the theme for many Russian artists to come - the suffering of the simple man over the oppressive upper class; the pressure to choose what is right over what feels good, which inspired Tolstoy, Dostoyevsky, and Chekhov.
Alexander died January 29, 1837 from injuries received in a duel fought two days earlier, where he had challenged his wife's sister's fiancé, George D’Anthès-Heeckeren, who was infatuated with Alexander's wife, Natalia. Alexander's funeral was held in a small church, and attendees were required to present a ticket for admittance. He was buried next to his mother at Svyatye Gory Monastery.
A statue of Alexander Pushkin was unveiled in Moscow in 1880.
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