家光 徳川

竹千代 徳川 (1604 - 1651)

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竹千代 (家光) "Takechiyo, Iemitsu" 徳川 aka Tokugawa
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Died [location unknown]
Profile last modified | Created 19 Jun 2014
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Categories: Japanese Notables | Japanese Shoguns.

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Biography

Tokugawa Iemitsu / Iyemitsu / 徳川 家光 (12 August 1604-8 June 1651). [1]

3rd Tokugawa shogun of Japan (1623-1651) [imperial regnal era names (nengō): Genna (1615–1624), Kan'ei (1624–1644), Shōhō (1644–1648) & Keian (1648–1652)]. [1]

Jan Anthonisz: van Riebeeck (1619-1677) from Culemborg [Gelderland] - Cape of Good Hope’s 1st VOC commander (1652-1662) – serves (1641-1642) as surgeon ("chirurg") on Dejima & the controversial 'Nambu Affair' (1643) involving the arrest of the crew of the VOC ship "Breskens" takes place during his time as shogun. [1]

Eldest son of Tokugawa Hidetada & grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu, grows up with childhood name Takechiyo (竹千代) with 2 sisters, Senhime & Masako, & rival brother. Comes of age (1617) dropping childhood name becoming Tokugawa Iemitsu & designated heir to Tokugawa shogunate. From early age practices ‘shudo’ [衆道 - wakashudō = ‘way of adolescent boys’) or nanshoku / danshoku (男色 ‘male colours’ - 色 ‘colour’ suggesting ‘sexual pleasure’]. Falls out (1620) with childhood friend, retainer & lover, Sakabe Gozaemon (aged 21) killing him as they share a bathtub. [1]

When aged 19, father abdicates in son’s favour continuing to rule as Ōgosho (retired Shogun). He & retired father visit (1626) Emperor Go-Mizunoo, Empress Masako (Hidetada's daughter & Iemitsu's sister) & Imperial Princess Meishō in Kyoto making lavish grants of gold & money to court nobles & court itself but relations deteriorate after Purple Clothes Incident (紫衣事件 shi-e jiken), during which Emperor is accused of bestowing honorific purple garments to more than 10 priests despite edict banning them for 2 years (to weaken bond between Emperor & religious circles). Shogunate intervenes outlawing bestowing of garments. When his wet nurse & sister Masako break taboo by visiting imperial court as commoners, Go-Mizunoo abdicates, embarrassed & Meisho becomes empress. Shogun is now uncle of reigning monarch. Finally assumes real power (Kan'ei 9 [24th day of 2nd month] on father’s death (1632) & fear of brother assassinating him removed once brother commits ritual suicide [seppuku – ‘happy despatch’] (1633). Dismisses father’s advisors appointing childhood friend creating strong, centralized administration introducing effective rebellion-deterrent sankin kōtai system - daimyo forced to reside in Edo with limited access to home provinces & prevented from amassing wealth or power by incurring huge travel expenses travelling with entourages to & from Edo while wives & heirs remain ‘hostages’ in Edo. [1]

Armed revolt (1637) against his anti-Christian policies in Shimabara (‘Shimabara Rebellion’). Thousands killed in revolt's suppression & countless more executed afterwards. During 1630s, issues series of edicts restricting Japan's intercourse with outside world. Japanese (since 1590s) travel extensively in East & South-East Asia (&, in rare instances even further afield), now forbidden from leaving country or returning, under pain of death. Europeans are expelled from country with the exception of those associated with VOC restricted to man-made island of Dejima, in Nagasaki harbour. Japan remains connected to international commerce, information & cultural exchange, though only through 4 avenues with Nagasaki centre of trade & other dealings with VOC & independent Chinese merchants while Kyushu-based Satsuma clan controls relations with Ryūkyū Kingdom while Tsushima clan handles diplomatic & trade relations with Korean Joseon Dynasty & Matsumae clan manages communications with indigenous Ainu, people of Hokkaido. Although Japan generally considered ‘closed’[sakoku 鎖国 – ‘chained country’), effectively only "maritime restrictions" [kaikin 海禁- ‘maritime restrictions’) put in place. [1]

Empress Meisho abdicates (1643) throne & succeeded by younger half-brother (Go-Mizunoo's son by consort) Emperor Go-Komyo, who dislikes shogunate for its violent & barbaric ways repeatedly making insulting comments about Iemitsu & eldest son & heir, Tokugawa Ietsuna. Dies (1651) aged 47 - 1st Tokugawa shogun whose reign ends with death & not abdication & accorded posthumous name of Taiyūin aka Daiyūin. Succeeded by eldest son & heir, Tokugawa Ietsuna. [1]

Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 [Mansell Upham - reworked from Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tokugawa_Iemitsu)] Facebook First Fifty Years Project - Tokugawa Iemitsu / Iyemitsu / 徳川 家光 (12 August 1604-8 June 1651). Seen and added by Philip van der Walt Apr 26, 2015; reworked into this profile on Aug 6, 2017.


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No known carriers of 家光's Y-chromosome or his mother's mitochondrial DNA have taken yDNA or mtDNA tests.

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Images: 3
Tokugawa Iemitsu / Iyemitsu / 徳川 家光 (12 August 1604-8 June 1651) 3rd Tokugawa shogun of Japan (1623-1651)
Tokugawa Iemitsu / Iyemitsu / 徳川 家光 (12 August 1604-8 June 1651)   3rd Tokugawa shogun of Japan (1623-1651)

Dejima, Nagasaki, Japan
Dejima, Nagasaki, Japan

Deshima [Dejima] VOC outpost at Nagasaki, Kyushu, Japan
Deshima [Dejima] VOC outpost at Nagasaki, Kyushu, Japan

Collaboration

家光 is 40 degrees from Rosa Parks, 32 degrees from Anne Tichborne and 31 degrees from Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.

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