The 1850 Census shows Rufus (age 25) living in Davis County, Davis, Utah Territory with his siblings: Mary Ann (25), Joseph (10), Elias (9), Caroline (9) and Joshua (2). All of the siblings were born in Illinois except for Joshua, who was born in Iowa. Mary Ann's Find-a-Grave memorial says that she died about 2 years later, which was the only clue I've found that she is Rufus's sibling and not his wife.
↑ "United States Census, 1850," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MCS6-TQB : 9 November 2014), Rufus Adams in household of Joseph Adams, Davis county, Davis, Utah Territory, United States; citing family 24, NARA microfilm publication M432 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
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It may be possible to confirm family relationships with Rufus by comparing test results with other carriers of his ancestors' Y-chromosome or mitochondrial DNA.
However, there are no known yDNA or mtDNA test-takers in his direct paternal or maternal line.
It is likely that these autosomal DNA test-takers will share some percentage of DNA with Rufus: