John Bardeen was an American physicist and electrical engineer. He is one of only four people to win the Nobel Prize twice, and the only person to have won the Nobel Prize the same field. The first Nobel Prize was awarded in 1956 for research on semiconductors and the invention of the transistor that he and two others did while he working at Bell Labs. The second Nobel Prize was awarded in 1972 to Bardeen and two others for their theory of conventional superconductivity.
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