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James Wągᵋnaroskaga Blackhawk (1850 - 1920)

James Wągᵋnaroskaga "Nawanoskaga" Blackhawk
Born in Wisconsin, United Statesmap
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
Descendants descendants
Died at about age 70 [location unknown]
Profile last modified | Created 5 Oct 2019
This page has been accessed 315 times.
James was Ho-Chunk.




Wanknaroskaka put into proper orthography would be Wągᵋnaroskaga. The word wąk does mean "man," but naroska is unattested. This word is said to mean, "distinguished" by Jipson (241). The -ga at the end of the name is a definite article used in personal names. This name does not occur in the Indian censuses. Instead, the first syllable, Wąk, "man," is dropped and the name is consistently rendered as NauWauNoSkaKah = Nawanoskaga. Unfortunately, the word nawanoska is also unattested. The 1904 census has his name as NaukWauNoSkaKah. The words nákwą and nąwą are both variants of one another, meaning "to sing." However, there is no word noska thus far attested.


The various Indian censuses show that he was born in 1850, and the Official Register (vol. 1, 558) records that it was in Wisconsin.


"Sayokoruspinka and his wife, Peneeka (Beautiful) had Wanknaroskaka (Man of Distinction) born about 1847, known as James Blackhawk, died in the autumn of 1920. He married Wihaneka (Second born) daughter of Chief Winneshiek (Coming Thunder).” (Jipson 241)

“The sons of Wanknaroskaka or James Blackhawk were Nojumbka, meaning The thunder who strikes the tree or John Blackhawk and Takjagohoyka, (Returning with victory), Albert Black hawk, died July 1912, at age 20. The daughters are Chimkananewinka (She who goes on the village) born 1875 married Edwin Greengrass; Ahosojwaywinka (She whose feathers are worn) born 1881, married Arthur Cas_man, and Wakanjapinwinka (The good thunder woman), born 1886, married Charles Greengrass and lives at Trempealeau, Wisconsin.” (Jipson, 241)


The Official Register (vol. 1, 558) records that on 1 July 1887 James Blackhawk was working as an assistant farmer on the Omaha-Winnebago Agency in Nebraska with an income of $300 a year.


  • Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923). This is an unpublished typescript.
  • 1911 Indian census; Roll: M595_570; Line: 12; Agency: Tomah Indian School. Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M595, 692 rolls); Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group 75; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  • Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of the Census. Official Register of the United States, Containing a List of the Officers and Employees in the Civil, Military, and Naval Service. Digitized books (77 volumes). Oregon State Library, Salem, Oregon.

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Categories: Ho-Chunk