Himself, as President of the Republic
|Emperor of the French
2 December 1852 - 4 September 1870
Last reigning monarch in France
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was the first President of the French Republic and, as Napoleon III, the ruler of the Second French Empire. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I. Elected President in France's first ever popular vote in 1848, he initiated a coup d'état in 1851, before ascending the throne as Napoleon III on 2 December 1852, the forty-eighth anniversary of Napoleon I's coronation. He ruled as Emperor of the French until 4 September 1870. He holds the distinction of being both the first titular president and the last monarch of France.
As President of the Republic, Louis-Napoléon sent French troops to help restore Pope Pius IX as ruler of the Papal States in 1849 after his rule had been overthrown by the revolutionaries led by Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi who had proclaimed the Roman Republic. French troops remained in Rome to protect the Pope until the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870.
DNA testing of hair belonging to Napoleon III, of hair belonging to Louis-Napoleon, Prince Imperial, and comparison with Y-DNA haplogroups of descendants of Jerome Bonaparte and the known haplogroup of Napoleon I has shown that Napoleon III was not the son of Luigi Bonaparte.
Have you taken a DNA test? If so, login to add it. If not, see our friends at Ancestry DNA.