PIERRE de Bourbon, son of LOUIS I "le Boiteux" Louis I de Bourbon Duc de Bourbon & his wife Marie Avesnes de Hainaut [Avesnes] (-killed in battle Poitiers 19 Sep 1356, bur Paris, église des Jacobins). He succeeded his father in 1342 as PIERRE I Duc de Bourbon, Comte de Clermont et de la Marche. Governor General of Languedoc 8 Aug 1345.
Duke Peter is reported to have been somewhat mentally unstable, a trait of nervous breakdowns presumably hereditary that showed clearly for example in his daughter Joan of Bourbon, the queen, and in her son, king Charles VI of France, as well as in Peter's only surviving son, Duke Louis II.
Early career Peter I took part in several of the early campaigns of the Hundred Years War which broke out in 1337.In the summer of 1339 he took part in Jean de Marigny, Bishop of Beauvais's failed attack on Bordeaux.In autumn 1341 he took part in the John, Duke of Normandy's campaign in Brittany.He was present at the coronation of Pope Clement VI at Avignon 19 May 1342.Summer 1342 he was together with the Raoul I of Brienne, Count of Eu given command of the covering force protecting France from attacks from the north while king Philip VI campaigned in Brittany.In August 1343 he and the Dauphin of Viennois were the French ambassadors at a peace conference at Avignon, but the negotiations were fruitless as the Edward III of England declined to send any but the most junior member of the embassy.
Lieutenant in Languedoc:On 8 August 1345 Peter I was appointed by Philip VI as his lieutenant on the south-west march. His opponent was to be Henry, Earl of Derby (later Earl and Duke of Lancaster) who completed disembarking his army at Bordeaux the day after Peter I's appointment.
Peter I arrived to take up his lieutenancy in Languedoc in September. By then the Earl of Derby had already opened his campaign, throwing the French defences into disarray with the capture of Bergerac and the destruction of the French army present there the previous month. Bourbon set up headquarters at Angoulême and begun an extensive recruitment campaign to raise a new army, command of which fell to the Duke of Normandy. However on 21 October the Earl of Derby won another crushing victory outside Auberoche over parts of this force. The Duke of Normandy abandoned his campaign once he heard the news. In early November he disbanded his army and left for the north.
The Earl of Derby exploited the absence of a French commander in the field to lay siege to the important fortress-city of La Réole. Bourbon proclaimed the arrière-ban in Languedoc and the march provinces in an attempt to find troops to relieve the siege. However the results were poor as many of the potential recruits were still on their way home from the army just disbanded by John of Normandy. Attempts by John I, Count of Armagnac to raise troops from his domains in the Rouergue also produced little. Early January 1346 the garrison of La Réole marched away under truce.
Winter 1346 Bourbon kept his winter quarters at the provincial capital of Agen, a city which quickly was becoming isolated as many of the lesser towns were captured or defected to the English. Spring however opened with the so far greatest French effort in the south-west. Bourbon and the Bishop of Beauvais raised a new army at Toulouse, in part financed by the Pope whose nephew had been captured by Derby the previous year, while John of Normandy brought with him a substantial number of nobles from the north including such dignitaries as the Eudes IV, Duke of Burgundy, Raoul II of Brienne, Count of Eu the Constable of France, both Marshals and the Master of Crossbowmen. In April Normandy laid siege to the town of Aiguillon which controlled the confluence between the Lot and the Garonne. There they still remained in August when John of Normandy was urgently recalled to the north to help stop Edward III who had landed in Normandy. And so the French 1346 campaign in the south ended having accomplished nothing.
Diplomatic missions:In July 1347 he took part in fruitless negotiations with the English outside Calais in the days just before that city's capitulation.
On 8 February 1354 he was together with the Guy, Cardinal of Boulogne appointed as King John II's commissioners to King Charles II of Navarre, empowered to offer whatever Charles wanted. The two met the King of Navarre in the castle of Mantes, accompanied by the two dowager Queens and droves of courtiers and ministers, most of who more or less openly sympathized with Charles of Navarre. The treaty concluded 22 February granted to Charles of Navarre a considerable part of Lower Normandy which he was to hold with the same rights as the Duke of Normandy.
In January 1355 he was sent together with the Chancellor of France Pierre de la Forêt on a diplomatic mission to Avignon where they were to meet with an English embassy led by Henry of Lancaster and Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel. The purpose of the mission was to formally ratify a peace treaty based on a draft drawn up at Guînes the previous year. However since then French policy had changed, the French ambassadors had only come to reject the English demands and had nothing new to offer. Negotiations therefore quickly broke down and the conference ended having accomplished nothing except prolonging the existing truce a few more months until 24 June.
May 1355 when it became apparent that open war was about to break out between the King of France and a King of Navarre allied to England the Duke of Bourbon belonged to the party fronted by the Dowager Queens who lobbied John II on Charles of Navarre's behalf. In the end John II gave way and on 31 May agreed to pardon Charles of Navarre.
In July the Duke of Bourbon and the Chancellor met with English ambassadors to negotiate the extension of the truce. As both the French and English governments had decided to resume the war these negotiations were naturally quite empty and fruitless.
m (25 Jan 1336) ISABELLE de Valois, daughter of CHARLES de France Comte de Valois & his third wife Mathilde de Châtillon Ctss de Saint-Pol (1313-Paris 26 Jul 1383, bur Paris, église des Frères mineurs). She became a nun at the convent des Cordeliers du Faubourg Saint-Marceau, Paris.
Pierre & his wife had eight children:
LOUIS de Bourbon (4 Aug 1337-Château de Montluçon 19 Aug 1410, bur Priory of Souvigny). He succeeded his father in 1356 as LOUIS II "le Bon" Duc de Bourbon, Comte de Clermont. A charter dated 18 May 1370 refers to Louis Duc d´Anjou as "curateur de Mgr Jean de Forez", and records the authorisation by Charles V King of France of the transfer of the former´s rights in the county of Forez to Louis II Duc de Bourbon, husband of Comte Jean´s niece Anne de Clermont. Comte de Forez et de Roannais 15 May 1372, by right of his wife. Head of the Council of Charles VI King of France. Baron de Beaujeu et de Dombes 23 Jun 1400, by donation of Edouard Sire de Beaujeu. In return for his son inheriting the Duchy of Auvergne from his father-in-law Jean Duc de Berry, Duc Louis II agreed that the duchy of Bourbon and County of Clermont would revert to the French crown in case of extinction of his male line. This change in status of the patrimony of the Bourbon family into a simple apanage was especially significant in view of the previous transmission of the old seigneurie de Bourbon through the female line on two occasions. m (contract Montbrison 4 Jul 1368, in person Ardes Jan 1370, Papal dispensation 15 Sep 1370) ANNE de Clermont Dame de Mercœur, daughter and heiress of BERAUD [II] Comte de Clermont [en Auvergne], Dauphin d'Auvergne & his first wife Jeanne de Forez dame d'Ussel (1358-Château de Cleppé en Forez 22 Sep 1417, bur Priory of Souvigny). Ctss de Forez. "Domina Johanna de Borbonio, relicta…Guidonis comitis Forensis, comitissa Forensis" donated her rights in the county of Forez to "dominam Annam Dalphine duchissam Borbonii, filiam suam et…dominum Ludovicem ducem Borbonii eius nepotem, conjuges" by charter dated 5 Jul 1382. Louis Duc de Bourbon transferred his rights in the county of Forez to his wife by charter dated 5 Jan 1383. Dauphine de Clermont 1400. The testament of "Johanna de Bourbonio comitissa Forensis, filiaque…domini Ludovici ducis Borbonii, comitis Claromontis et Marchie, et domine Marie Heynaut, coniugem, relicta…domini Guidonis comitis Forensis quondam", dated 13 Jun 1400, bequeathed property to "dominum ducem Bourboni, comitem Claromontensem et Forensem, et Annam Dalphinam, duchissam Bourbonii, nepotem et filiam meos", and founded an anniversary for "domine Margarite de Sabbadia…sororgie mee, quondam consortis…fratris mei domini Reynaudi de Foresio".
JEANNE de Bourbon (Château du Bois de Vincennes 3 Feb 1339-Hôtel de Saint-Pol, Paris 6 Feb 1378, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). The marriage contract of "Dom. Humberti Dalphini Vienn." and "Dom. Johannam primogenitam Dom. Ducis [Borbonesii]" is dated 24 Jun 1348. The marriage contract of "Jehan ainsnez fils du Roy de France, Duc de Normandie et de Guyenne…Charles de France nostre ainsnez fils" and "Pierre Duc de Bourbonnois conte de Clermont et de la Marche…Jehanne de Bourbon nostre ainsnée fille" is dated Jul 1349. She was crowned Queen of France with her husband 19 May 1364. She died from a fever following childbirth. Betrothed (24 Jun 1348) to HUMBERT [II] Dauphin de Viennois, son of JEAN [II] Comte d’Albon Dauphin de Viennois [la Tour du Pin] & his wife Béatrice of Hungary (-Clermont-en-Auvergne 22 May 1355, bur Paris Dominican convent). m (contract Lyon Jul 1349, Tain-en-Viennois, Drôme 8 Apr 1350) CHARLES de France Dauphin de Viennois, son of JEAN de France Duc de Guyenne [later JEAN II "le Bon" King of France] & his first wife Jutta [Bonne] of Bohemia [Luxembourg] (Château du Bois de Vincennes 21 Jan 1338-Château de Beauté-sur-Marne, Nogent-sur-Marne 16 Sep 1380, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). Comte de Poitiers 1354. Duc de Normandie 7 Dec 1355. He succeeded his father in 1364 as CHARLES V King of France.
BLANCHE de Bourbon (end 1339-poisoned Medina Sidonia [14 May/31 Jul] 1361). Imprisoned by her husband within days of their marriage, she was murdered 8 years later on his orders. m (by proxy Abbaye de Preuilly 9 Jul 1352 in person Valladolid 3 Jun 1353) as his first wife, don PEDRO I "el Cruel" King of Castile and León, son of ALFONSO XI King of Castile and León & his second wife Infanta dona Maria de Portugal (Burgos 30 Aug 1334-murdered Montiel 22 Mar 1369, bur Seville Cathedral).
BONNE de Bourbon ([1340/42]-Château de Mâcon 19 Jan 1402). Jean King of France confirmed payments to "Bonna di Bourbon Moglie del Conte Amedeo di Savoia" relating to her dowry in 1363. She was appointed regent of Savoy by her husband 3 Jan 1366-end 1367 during his absence on crusade. Her husband appointed her regent for their son in 1383, and the latter appointed her regent for her grandson Amédée VIII Comte de Savoie in 1391. She renounced her role in May 1395 and retired to Mâcon. m (contract Paris Hôtel de Saint-Pol Aug 1355, Chambéry Sep 1355) AMEDEE VI Comte de Savoie, son of AYMON "le Pacifique" Comte de Savoie & his wife Violanta di Monferrato (Château de Chambéry 4 Jan 1334-Santo Stefano, near Castropignano, Apulia 1 Mar 1383, bur Abbaye de Hautecombe).
CATHERINE de Bourbon (-Paris 7 Jun 1427, bur Priory of Notre-Dame du Parc). m (Château du Louvre, Paris 14 Oct 1359) JEAN [VI] Comte d´Harcourt et d'Aumâle, son of JEAN [V] Comte d´Harcourt & his wife Blanche de Ponthieu Ctss d'Aumâle (1 Dec 1342-28 Feb 1388, bur Priory of Notre-Dame du Parc).
MARGUERITE de Bourbon (-after 4 Jan 1416). m (contract 4 May 1368) ARNAUD AMANIEU [VIII Sire d'Albret Vicomte de Tartas, son of BERNARD AIZ [V] Sire d'Albret & his second wife Mathe d'Armagnac (-1401)
ISABELLE de Bourbon .
MARIE de Bourbon (-Poissy 29 Dec 1401, bur église du Prieuré de Poissy). Nun at the Dominican priory of Poissy , elected Abbess of Poissy 1380.
Peter was killed in the Battle of Poitiers 19 September 1356.
ROYAL ANCESTRY by Douglas Richardson Vol. I page 478
Pierre Ier, né en 1311, mort à Poitiers en 1356, fut duc de Bourbon de 1342 à 1356.
Il était fils de Louis Ier, 1er duc de Bourbon et comte de la Marche, et de Marie d'Avesnes.
Il fit ses premières armes en 1341 sous les ordres du duc de Normandie, le futur roi Jean II de France et combattit en Bretagne, alors en pleine guerre. Il permit notamment au prétendant français Charles de Blois de prendre possession du duché.
En 1346, il combattit à Crécy et y fut blessé. En 1355, il fut envoyé dans le Languedoc avec le titre de lieutenant général du roi, et accomplit sa mission avec succès. Il se battit à la bataille de Poitiers et y fut tué, en faisant rempart de son corps devant son roi.
Famille: Il épousa en 1336 Isabelle de Valois (1313-1383), fille de Charles de France, comte de Valois, d'Alençon, de Chartres, d'Anjou, du Maine et de Mahaut de Saint-Pol. Ils eurent huit enfants :
Louis II (1337 † 1410), duc de Bourbon
Jeanne (1338 † 1378), mariée en 1350 à Charles V (1338 † 1380), roi de France
Blanche (1339 † 1361), mariée en 1352 à Pierre Ier le Cruel (1334 † 1369), roi de Castille et de León
Bonne de Bourbon (1341 † 1402), mariée en 1355 à Amédée VI († 1383), comte de Savoie
Catherine (1342 † 1427), mariée en 1359 à Jean VI († 1388), comte d'Harcourt et d'Aumale et baron d'Elbeuf
Marguerite de Bourbon (1344 † ap.1416), mariée en 1359 à Arnaud VIII Amanieu (1338 † 1401), sire d'Albret, comte de Dreux
Isabelle (1345 † )
Marie (1347 † 1401), prieure de Poissy
ROYAL ANCESTRY by Douglas Richardson Vol. I page 478
Royal Ancestry by Douglas Richardson Vol. V page 232