Carlos IV (Bourbon) de España

Carlos Antonio Pascual Francisco Javier Juan Nepomuceno José Januario Serafín Diego (Bourbon) de España (1748 - 1819)

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Carlos Antonio Pascual Francisco Javier Juan Nepomuceno José Januario Serafín Diego (Carlos IV) "Rey de España" de España formerly Bourbon
Born in Portici, Napoli, Campania, Regno di Napolimap
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married 4 Sep 1765 (to 2 Jan 1819) in Palacio Real de La Granja, San Ildefonso, Segovia, Españamap
Descendants descendants
Died in Napoli, Campania, Regno delle Due Siciliemap
Profile last modified 6 Feb 2020 | Created 22 May 2013
This page has been accessed 1,170 times.
European Aristocracy
Carlos IV Bourbon was a member of the aristocracy in Europe.
Preceded by
Carlos III
Rey de España
1788-1808
Succeeded by
Fernando VII


Biography

Charles IV (Spanish: Carlos Antonio Pascual Francisco Javier Juan Nepomuceno José Januario Serafín Diego; 11 November 1748 – 20 January 1819) was King of Spain from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808.

Charles was the second son of Charles III and his wife, Maria Amalia of Saxony. He was born in Naples (11 November 1748), while his father was King of Naples and Sicily. His elder brother, Don Felipe, was passed over for both thrones, due to his learning disabilities and epilepsy. In Naples and Sicily, Charles was referred to as the Prince of Taranto. He was called El Cazador (meaning "the Hunter"), due to his preference for sport and hunting, rather than dealing with affairs of the state. Charles was considered by many to have been amiable, but simple-minded.

On 4 September 1765 he married his cousin, Maria Luisa of Parma, daughter of Philip, Duke of Parma and Elisabeth of France. They were grandchildren of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth Farnese.

In 1788, Charles III died and Charles IV succeeded to the throne. He intended to maintain the policies of his father, and retained his prime minister, the Count of Floridablanca, in office. Even though he had a profound belief in the sanctity of his office, and kept up the appearance of an absolute, powerful monarch, Charles never took more than a passive part in his own government. The affairs of government were left to his wife, Maria Luisa, and his prime minister, while he occupied himself with hunting. In 1792, political and personal enemies ousted Floridablanca from office, replacing him with Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Count of Aranda. However, in the wake of the war against Republican France, the liberal-leaning Count of Aranda was himself replaced by Manuel de Godoy, a favourite of the Queen and widely believed to be her lover, who enjoyed the lasting favor of the King.

Godoy continued Aranda's policy of neutrality towards France, but after Spain protested the execution of Louis XVI of France, the deposed king, in 1793, France declared war on Spain. After the declaration, Portugal and Spain signed a treaty of mutual protection against France. In 1795 France forced Godoy to enter into an alliance, and declare war on the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Spain remained an ally of France and supported the Continental Blockade until the British naval victory at Trafalgar, when Spain became allied with Britain. However, after Napoleon's victory over Prussia in 1807, Godoy again steered Spain back onto the French side. This switching of alliances devalued Charles' position as a trustworthy ally, increasing Godoy's unpopularity, and strengthening the fernandistas (supporters of Crown Prince Ferdinand), who favoured an alliance with the United Kingdom.

Economic troubles, rumours about a sexual relationship between the Queen and Godoy, and the King's ineptitude, caused the monarchy to decline in prestige among the population. Anxious to take over from his father, and jealous of the prime minister, Crown Prince Ferdinand attempted to overthrow the King in an aborted coup in 1807.

Riots, and a popular revolt at the winter palace Aranjuez, in 1808 forced the king to abdicate on 19 March, in favor of his son. Ferdinand took the throne as Ferdinand VII, but was mistrusted by Napoleon, who had 100,000 soldiers stationed in Spain by that time.

The ousted King, having appealed to Napoleon for help in regaining his throne, was summoned before Napoleon in Bayonne, along with his son, in April 1808. Napoleon forced both Charles and his son to abdicate, declared the Bourbon dynasty of Spain deposed, and installed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as King Joseph I of Spain

Following Napoleon's deposing of the Bourbon dynasty, the ex-King, his wife, and former Prime Minister Godoy were held captive in France first at the château de Compiègne and three years in Marseille (where a neighborhood was named after him). After the collapse of the regime installed by Napoleon, Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne. The former Charles IV drifted about Europe until 1812, when he finally settled in Rome, in the Palazzo Barberini. His wife died on 2 January 1819, followed shortly by Charles, who died on 20 January of the same year.[1]


Sources

  1. Wikipedia [1]

See also:



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DNA Connections
It may be possible to confirm family relationships with Carlos IV by comparing test results with other carriers of his Y-chromosome or his mother's mitochondrial DNA. Y-chromosome DNA test-takers in his direct paternal line on WikiTree:

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Comments: 2

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De Borbón-2 and Bourbon-71 appear to represent the same person because: Not sure what LNAB should be but they should be merged
posted by C. Mackinnon
Bourbon-132 and Bourbon-71 appear to represent the same person because: Clear duplicate

Carlos IV is 21 degrees from Donald Howard, 9 degrees from Julia Howe and 9 degrees from Henry VIII of England on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.

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Categories: House of Bourbon | House of Capet | Spanish Nobility