Jacques Bourgeois

Jacques Bourgeois (abt. 1621 - abt. 1701)

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Jacques "Jacob" Bourgeois
Born about in Francemap
Ancestors ancestors
Son of [uncertain] and [uncertain]
Husband of — married about in Acadiemap
Descendants descendants
Died about in Port-Royal, Acadie, Nouvelle-Francemap
Profile last modified | Created 11 Jun 2010
This page has been accessed 11,933 times.

Categories: Acadians | French Immigrants to Acadia | Port-Royal, Acadie | Beaubassin, Acadie.

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Contents

Origins and parentage

There are three differing accounts on the year if birth, origins and parentage of Jacques Bourgeois:

1. In 1994 and 1999, Stephen White stated that Jacques Bourgeois' parents are unknown. He indicates that Jacques was born around 1619, showing the years of birth derived from the censuses ranging from 1616 to 1621 as follows:
1671 census, at Port-Royal - 50 years old, i.e. b. ~1621
1686 census, at Port-Royal - 67 years old, i.e. b. ~1619
1693 census, at Port-Royal - 74 years old, i.e. b. ~1619
1698 census, at Beaubassin - 82 years old, i.e. b. ~1616.
White has made no corrections to this information as of May 2014.[1][2]
2. It is stated in the research notes on Rootsweb ID 1585 (citing Perron 1997) that Jacques was born at La Ferté-Gaucher, baptized on 8 Jan 1621 at St-Romain Catholic Church. Perron cites own articles in Les Cahiers de la Société historique acadienne. vol. 22, no. 4 (199 1) and vol. 23, no. 1 (1992). Here is the baptism record referred to:
Baptism Entry for Jacob Bourgeois
On 26 Jun 2015 at 18:49 GMT Donna (Friebel) Storz wrote via a post on this profile: In March I wrote Stephen A. White regarding the baptism record and this is his response:
"Regarding the baptismal record of which you forwarded me a copy, I see nothing in it that indicates that the child in question was subsequently known as Jacques Bourgeois, and even if he did come to be so known, there is nothing in the articles of René Perron (« De Germain Doucet à Jacques Bourgeois », Cahiers de la Société historique acadienne, vol. XXII (1991), p. 86-114; « Bourgeois & Doucet : à Bassevelle, des suites suprenantes », ibidem, vol. XXIII (1992), p. 27-46; et « Découverte d’un Jacob Bourgeois à La Ferté-Gaucher, critiques et commentaires», ibidem, vol. XXIII (1992), p. 95-103) that provides any solid indication that he might have been the same Jacques Bourgeois who emigrated to Acadia. That is why my Dictionnaire généalogique des familles acadiennes shows no origine for our ancestor Jacques Bourgeois. There must be at least a degree of probability of identity, in addition to a mere possibility, before such can be included in a publication like mine, particularly where, as here, the ancestor’s name was such a common one." It seems we may want to revise the parental links (and perhaps make them so people can't reinsert the parents.)
3. In 1969 Clément Cormier[3] asserted that there were two Jacques (father and son), who immigrated to Acadia. The father later returned to France.[4]

Biography

Jacques dit Jacob BOURGEOIS (1621 - <1700)
Jacques dit Jacob BOURGEOIS was born in France on January 7, 1621 in La Ferté-Gaucher commune's Saint-Romain parish. He was a surgeon and may have learned this profession from the Order of Malta, near his home in France.
Flag of France
Jacques Bourgeois migrated from France to Acadia.
Flag of Acadia
He arrived at Port-Royal in Acadia on July 6, 1641[5] having sailed aboard the Saint-François from the port of La Rochelle. He was travelling with the governor of Acadia, Charles de Menou d'Aulnay, who was leading a convoy of four ships.[2][1][6]
He married Jeanne Trahan at Port-Royal in 1643. She was born about 1629 at Bourgueil in ancient Anjou province and arrived in Acadia in 1636 with her father Guillaume Trahan, her mother Francoise Corbineau and a sister.
At Port-Royal, Jacques became a farmer, shipbuilder, and trader. He traded with Bostonians; learning their language and becoming an interpreter for French and English. By 1670, Jacques was believed to be the wealthiest citizen in Port-Royal.
In 1646, Jacques and Jeanne were granted an island called île aux Cochons, situated in the Dauphin River (today Annapolis River) upstream from Port-Royal.[7][8]
In 1671, Jacques, founded the "Bourgeois colony" with his two sons (Charles & Germain) and established the colony with several other European families.
In 1672, he sold a part of his land in Port-Royal to settle in Chignecto isthmus, where he built a flour-mill and saw-mill. This region had fertile marshes and high ground for farming. The northeast coast of the isthmus (Shediac) was a relay station in sea communications between Acadia and Canada for strategic commanding the isthmus and Bay of Fundy. Later, the Beaubassin region (south of Shediac and west of Chigneto) became the most prosperous place in Acadia.
The Bourgeois colony became Beaubassin, when Michel Leneuf de la Vallière de Beaubassin, was in 1676 granted the seigneurie de Beaubassin. The settlement was near the border separating present day New Brunswick from Nova Scotia. Jacques and his son, Guillaume, returned to live at Port Royal after the establishment at Beaubassin, although they kept farms at the new settlement. Jacques' other two sons, Charles and Germain, stay in Beaubassin with their families. A clause in the title to the seigneurie's land grant protected the interests of Jacques Bourgeois and the other Acadian settlers established on the domain so that competition between adjacent factions soon merged into one.[3]
He had 10 children with Jeanne; seven girls and three boys.
Jacques maintained a presence in Port-Royal as he is listed in the census for the years 1671, 1686, and 1693. His sons are living in Beaubassin in 1686 and 1693. In 1698 Jacques is listed as living at Beaubassin with son Germain, but he returned to Port-Royal before his death before 1700.[1][9]Jacques died in 1791 at Port Royal, Acadia, New-France, an octogenarian. [10]

Biographie

Jacques dit Jacob BOURGEOIS (1621 - <1700)
Jacques (Jacob) Bourgeois est un chirurgien militaire considéré comme l’ancêtre des Bourgeois acadiens. Arrivé en Acadie le 6 juillet 1641 sur le navire Saint-François, il épousera vers 1643, Jeanne Trahan , venue en Acadie vers 1636 avec ses parents. Le couple aura une dizaine d’enfants. Si Jacques exerce sa profession, il est aussi cultivateur et marchand, profitant du commerce auquel il s’adonne avec les Micmacs dans la baie de Fundy. En 1672, il fonde la « colonie Bourgeois » qui devient Beaubassin. Tout au long de sa vie, le pionnier, entreprenant et prospère, sera au service de la colonie . Jacques et sa femme décède avant 1700.[11]

Enfants / Children

Union avec / with Jeanne Trahan:[12]

  1. Jeanne b ~1644 Port-Royal
  2. Charles b ~1646 Port-Royal; m 1668 Anne Dugas; + 1677-1679.
  3. Germain b ~1650 Port-Royal; m 1e 1673 Marguerite Belliveau 2e 1682 Madeleine Dugas
  4. Marie b ~1652 Port-Royal; m 1e 1670 Pierre Cyr 2e 1680 Guillaume Girouard
  5. Guillaume b ~1655 Port-Royal; m 1686 Marie-Anne d'Aprendestiguy de Martignon
  6. Marguerite b ~1658 Port-Royal; m 1e 1676 Jean Boudrot, 2e 1679 Emmanuel Mirande dit Tavare, 3e 1707 Pierre Maisonnat dit Baptiste
  7. Françoise b ~1659 Port-Royal; m 1673 Claude Dugas
  8. Anne b ~1661 Port-Royal; m 1678 René LeBlanc
  9. Marie b ~1665 Port-Royal; m 1681 Antoine Leblanc
  10. Jeanne b ~1667 Port-Royal; m 1689 Pierre Comeau.

Timeline of Acadia

1632 Treaty Saint-Germain-en-Laye cedes Acadia to France; Isaac de Razilly brings ~300 elite men.[13]
1636 Arrival of the first French families to settle permanently.[14]
1654 British capture Port-Royal; French settlement ceases.[15]
1667-70 Treaty of Breda cedes Acadia to the French; settlement resumes.[16]
1670’s-1690’s Available farmland decreases; some leave Port-Royal to establish new villages: Beaubassin (1671); Grand-Pré and Pigiguit (1680); Chipoudie (1698), and Cobeguit and Petcoudiac (1699).[17]
1687 War of the League of Augsburg (King William’s War) starts between England and France.[18]
1690 Sir William Phips captures and sacks Port-Royal, coerces inhabitants' oaths of allegiance to English Crown, sets up local Peacekeeping Council and leaves within 12 days.[19][20][21] Seaman from two ships later loot and burn between 28 and 35 homes/habitations including the parish church.[8]
1697 Treaty of Ryswick restores Acadia to France; Port-Royal is its capital.[8]
Voir aussi chronologie au lien Acadie ou L'Acadie, région du Canada (touristique).

Étymologie & héraldique / Etymology & heraldry

Étymologie / Etymology
A « bourgeois » originally meant someone who lived in a "bourg" or town.[22][23][24] Starting in the XIIth century, a « bourgeois » designates a social class, which with the march of time becomes increasingly more influential through commerce, land ownership and family alliances.[22] During Louis XIV's reign, the influence of the « bourgeois » penetrates on a par with blood-line royalty into the most important public and ministerial roles. Whether a merchant, a seigneur or a high-rank military officer in the service of the King, the good fortune of the sons of the « bourgeois » are generally better with each new generation.[22] In modern times, the term morphs into a family name.[22]
In the days of the voyageurs, the fur trading barons, mostly of Scottish origins and operating from a Montreal base, are known as les « bourgeois ».[25]
The family name Bourgeois is the 87th most popular in France[22] and the 254th most popular in Québec.[26] The Bourgeois family is one of the 12 most important Acadian families.[12] Jacques dit Jacob Bougeois is the ancestor of the great majority of Bourgeois descendants in Quebec.[12]
Most of the grandchildren of Jacques Bourgeois were deported in 1755 to the New England colonies. Many of these deportees returned to Canada and the Bourgeois name is now common in south-eastern New Brunswick, in Quebec in Lanaudiere region, along the shores of the Richelieu River and in the Magdeleine Islands, and in eastern Ontario. Other deportees made their way to Louisiana and in St-Pierre-et-Miquelon.[27]
Bourgeois Family Crest
The three colored sails and the star represent the Acadian flag
The Franciscan cord and the ship represent the Saint-Francois that brought Jacques Bourgeois to Acadia.
Ten waves represent the ten children of Jacques Jacob Bourgeois and Jeanne Trahan.
Bourgeois Coat of Arms
The colors represent Acadia. The horizontal wavy band represents the sea, which linked France to New France. It also alludes to Beaubassin, which was founded by the first ancestor, Jacques Bourgeois.
The symbolism of the Acadian star requires no explanation.
The Franciscan cord refers to the Saint-Francois ship on which Jacques Bourgeois crossed the sea to settle at Port-Royal in 1641.
The fleam identifies his profession of surgeon.
The Maltese cross represents the Coutran Commandery of the Order of Malta at La Ferté-Gaucher. It is possible that Jacques Bourgeois received his surgeon training at the school of the Commandery.
The motto is “Attaining the ideal together”

Sources

Census sources
- 1671 Acadian Census at Port-Royal - Jacob Bourgeois, Surgeon, 50; his wife Jeanne Trahan 40. Children (one son and one daughter are married) - Jeanne 27, and Charles 25; then Germain 21, Marie 19, Guillaume 16, Marguerite 13, Francoise 12, Anne 10, Marie 7, Jeanne 4; cattle 33, sheep 24, more or less 20 arpents of cultivated land at two different locations.
- 1678 Acadian Census at Port-Royal. (Only his wife and two youngest daughters are still living with him.) - Jacques Bourgeois & Jeanne Trahan, 20 acres, 15 cattle, 2 girls, age 15- born 1663, age 12 born 1666.
-1686 Acadian Census at Port-Royal - (Living with his wife and his 31 year old son Guillaume.) Jacob Bourgeois 67, Jeanne Trahan 57; child. Guillaume 31; 20 arpents.
-1693 Acadian Census. (Living with his wife and his granddaughter, Jeanne.) at Port-Royal - Jacob Bourgeois 74, Jeanne Trahan his wife 64, Jeanne his granddaughter 3; 15 cattle, 20 sheep, 15 hogs, 40 arpents, 1 gun.
-1698 Acadian Census, at Beaubassin, Acadia - Sieur Jacques BOURGEOIS 82; Jeanne TRAHAN his wife 72. Germain BOURGEOIS 48; Madeleine DUGAS his wife 34; Guillaume 24; Agnes 12; 22 cattle, 15 hogs, 21 arpents, 3 guns, 1 servant.
General bibliography
Legend
- ABDA / ABAD Histoire de Bourgeois - Bulletin / Newsletter de l'Association des Bourgeois de Descendance Acadien (ABDA) / Association of Bourgeois of Acadian Descent (ABAD)
- DCB/DBC - Dictionary of Canadian Biography / Dictionnaire Biographique du Canada, University of Toronto/Université de Laval, 2003–Present
- DGFA - Dictionnaire généalogique des familles acadiennes
- LMDQ - La Mémoire du Québec
General bibliography
- 1755, L'Histoire et les Histoires website. Pioneer Families
- Ancestry.com, Ancestry.com, tid 0= 89229671, pid=482, (subscription required for access)
- ABDA / ABAD histoire-de-bourgeois.ca website. Jacques (Jacob) Bourgeois History
- Archives Départmentales de Seine-et-Marne, baptism registry record for Jacob Bourgeois, dated 8 Jan 1621 at La Ferté-Gaucher, France.
- Anon DBC / DCB, in collaboration (1966, 1979). "Bourg du Morillon” in DBC / DCB
- Arsenault, Bona (1955). L' Acadie des ancêtres : avec la généalogie des premières familles acadiennes, Le Conseil de la Vie Française en Amérique, Université Laval, Québec
- Bourgeois, Marc (ABDA / ABAD President, Printemps / Spring 2016). "L'Importance historique de Jacques Jacob Bourgeois et de la colonie Bourgeois, ultérieurement Beaubassin" / "The Historic Importance of Jacques Jacob Bourgeois and of the Bourgeois Colony, later Beaubassin", Le Bourgeois, No. 37, pp. 11-20, ISBN 1205-7045
- Bourgeois, Paul-Pierre (1994). À la Recherche Des Bourgeois D'Acadie (1641 À 1800), 2ième édition, 159 pp., ISBN 0919488544, ISBN 978091948854
- CBC radio-canada.ca website. Les Acadiens du Québec - La famille Bourgeois
- crc-canada.net website, Études spéciales, Les Canadiens-français de l’extérieur, Acadie
- Cormier, Clément (1969, 2017), “Jacques (Jacob) Bourgeois”, in DCB / DBC
- Dunn, Brenda (2004). A History of Port-Royal / Annapolis Royal 1605-1800. Nimbus Publishing
- Fergusson, C. Bruce, in collaboration with (1966, 1979). "Charles La Tourasse”, in DBC / DCB
- Griffiths, Naomi E.S (2005). From migrant to Acadian : a North-American border people, 1604-1755, McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
- Labelle-Martin, Suzanne; Lignée Bourgeois, Village d'antan franco-canadien
- MacBeath, George (1966, 1979). "Isaac de Razilly" in DBC / DCB
- LMDQ, Acadie ou L'Acadie, région du Canada (touristique)
- LMDQ, Bourgeois (Jacob)
- LMDQ, Bourgeois, Bourgeoys (étymologie)
- LMDQ, Beaubassin (agglomération de Nouvelle-Écosse-NE)
- Massignon, Geneviève. "Les parlers français d'Acadie, enquête linguistique", Librairie Klincksieck, Paris, 1962, 2 tomes, p32 first French families in Acadia.
- pc.gc.ca website. Les bourgeois, Parks Canada
- Perron, René (Feb 1997). Le Réveil Acadien, vol. XIII, no. 1, Feb 1997; p. 11
- Perron, F. René ( 6 Mars 2007). Lettre de F. René Perron, généalogiste français renommé, en réponse à l’enquête de Michele Doucette sur les origines de Germain Doucet, Sieur de La Verdure in doucetfamily.org website
- stat.gouv.qc.ca website. Les noms de familles au Québec
- Rameau de Saint-Père, Edme (1877). Une colonie féodale en Amérique (L'Acadie, 1604-1710), Didier & Cie. Paris
- Reader, Karen Theriot website. rootsweb.com
- Roberts, William I. 3rd (1966, 1979). “Robert Sedgwick” in DBC / DCB
- Stacey, C. P. (1966, 1979). “Sir William Phips” in DBC / DCB
- White, Stephen A. La généalogie des trente-sept familles hôtesses des "Retrouvailles 94", Les Cahiers de la Société historique acadienne, vol. 25, nos 2 et 3 (1994). (Bourgeois) [28]
- White, Stephen A., Patrice Gallant, and Hector-J Hébert (1999). Dictionnaire généalogique des familles acadiennes. 2 volumes., Moncton, N.-B.. Centre d'études acadiennes, Université De Moncton, 1999, Print, p. 251. Copy in possession of [[Girouard-4019| Jacqueline Girouard]. (According to White et al., "The Bourgeois in Acadie go back to only one stock. Their ancestor Jacques, born in France to 1619, arrived in the colony as a surgeon in 1641 on the ship Le Saint-François.")
- Jacques (Jacob) Bourgeois, Wikipédia, article
- William Phips, Wikipedia, article
- Bourgeois, Wiktionary entry

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 White 1999. p. 251
  2. 2.0 2.1 White 1994.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Cormier 1969, accessed March 26, 2017.
  4. To do: I have not yet obtained the article. Follow up article René Perron, in Le Réveil Acadien; vol. XIII, no. 1 (Feb 1997); p. 11.
  5. There are two dates documented: 1) Account of the payments to the crew (Including Bourgeois) which departed May 7 1641 on the Saint-François; and 2) A deposition dated July 31, 1699 states Jacques Bourgeois had come to Canada during 1642. Stephen White uses the date closest to the time of the event
  6. Website of Francois Roux has an image of the original three-page passenger list of the "Saint-Francois" dated 7 May 1641, when it left France for Acadie (Page 3). On it one finds the name of Jacques BOURGEOIS, surgeon, who was to be given 45 sous per year and received in advance the sum of 17: 4.
  7. Rameau 1877, see e,g, p. 157
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Dunn 2004
    pp. vii, ix,1-12; early European settlement
    p. 18; land grant to Jacques Bourgeois
    pp. 40,43; 1693, Port-Royal raid
    pp. 44-45; 1697, Treaty of Ryswick
    pp. 52-53; 1702, Queen Anne’s War
    pp. 61-62; 1704, Blockade of Port-Royal
    pp. 71-73; 1707, Attack on Port-Royal
    pp. 82-85; 1710, Siege of Port-Royal.
  9. Déclarations de Belle-Isle-en-Mer
  10. White 1999, p. 251 - Jacques died at Port-Royal (Belle-Ile-en-Mer Declaration) in 1701 (according to C. Cormier).
  11. Texte de ce paragraphe est tiré de Labelle-Martin.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 radio-canada.ca
  13. MacBeath 1966, accessed March 18, 2017
  14. Massignon 1962, p. 32
  15. Roberts 1966, accessed November 20, 2013
  16. Anon DBC / DCB in collaboration 1966, accessed November 20, 2013
  17. Pioneer Families
  18. Griffiths 2005, pp. 147-151 (King William’s War); pp. 267-268 (oaths of allegiance).
  19. Stacey 1966, accessed November 20, 2013
  20. William Phips, Wikipedia article
  21. Fergusson 1966, accessed November 20, 2013
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 Labelle-Martin, p. 1
  23. LMDQ, étymologie
  24. Bourgeois, Wiktionary entry
  25. Les bourgeois, Parks Canada
  26. stat.gouv.qc.ca, Annexe 1, Les 1 000 premiers noms de famille selon le rang, Québec
  27. ABDA / ABAD histoire-de-bourgeois.ca
  28. White 1994 - "The Bourgeois in Acadie go back to only one stock. Their ancestor Jacques, born in France to 1619, arrived in the colony as a surgeon in 1641 on the ship Le Saint-François. About two years later, he married Jeanne Trahan, daughter of Guillaume Trahan and Françoise Corbineau. He settled in Port-Royal. In 1672, he sent colonists to Beaubassin, which he is considered as the founder. His son Charles, born about 1646, married around 1668 with Anne Dugas, daughter of Abraham Dugas and Marguerite Doucet. Charles and Anne settled in Beaubassin. Charles Bourgeois son, born around 1672, was married around 1692 to Marie Blanchard, daughter of Guillaume Blanchard and Huguette Gougeon. Pierre Bourgeois, born about 1699, was the second son of Charles and Marie. He married, at Beaubassin, on August 18, 1722, Marie-Françoise Cormier, daughter of Pierre Cormier and Catherine The White. The sixth of their eight sons, Joseph Bourgeois dit Calotte, was born in Beaubassin on March 10 1741. Around 1764, he married Félicité Belliveau, daughter of Pierre Belliveau and Jeanne Gaudet. They are first settled at Pisiguit and then at Memramcook where Joseph died on November 20, 1833."


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DNA Connections
It may be possible to confirm family relationships with Jacques by comparing test results with other carriers of his Y-chromosome or his mother's mitochondrial DNA. However, there are no known yDNA or mtDNA test-takers in his direct paternal or maternal line. It is likely that these autosomal DNA test-takers will share DNA with Jacques:

Have you taken a DNA test for genealogy? If so, login to add it. If not, see our friends at Ancestry DNA.



Images: 6
Jacob Bourgeois et Jeanne Trahan 2
Jacob Bourgeois et Jeanne Trahan 2

Recensement de l'Acadie de 1671 Image 2
Recensement de l'Acadie de 1671 Image 2

Baptism Entry for Jacob Bourgeois
Baptism Entry for Jacob Bourgeois

Armoiries (Coats of Arms) des Bourgeois d'Acadie
Armoiries (Coats of Arms) des Bourgeois d'Acadie

The main settlements of Acadians settlers
The main settlements of Acadians settlers

view all


Collaboration

On 20 Aug 2018 at 22:02 GMT Jacqueline Girouard wrote:

Hi Claude, please add your comments to the profile as you deem fit. I'm no expert on this family--just doing some clean-up and merges.

On 20 Aug 2018 at 21:59 GMT Anonymous Lambert wrote:

Origins & parentage section needs to reflect fact that ABDA says in part about Jacques (Jacob) Bourgeois):

"The Bourgeois’ of Acadian descent can be traced back to one individual, which is Jacques Bourgeois, originally from FertéGaucher a French commune located in the Seine-et-Marne department, in the Île-deFrance region. . . ."

On 20 Aug 2018 at 13:48 GMT Jacqueline Girouard wrote:

Leaving parents for now though, marked uncertain--see discussion at top of biography. Thanks to everyone who has worked hard on this biography.

On 3 Aug 2018 at 04:26 GMT Anonymous Lambert wrote:

Jacob is a first name variant or nickname for Jacques.

On 27 Feb 2016 at 10:13 GMT Maryann (Thompson) Hurt wrote:

Hi

Do his parents need to be marked as uncertain or detached?

Maryann

On 25 Feb 2016 at 06:50 GMT Maryann (Thompson) Hurt wrote:

Bourgeois-820 and Bourgeois-8 appear to represent the same person because: These appear to be duplicates as both cite sources:

See WikiTree's Help: What if the data or parents for the two profiles don't exactly match?

This is often true. It shouldn't stop you from doing the merge if the two profiles represent the same person. Please read the rest of the merging FAQ.

On 25 Feb 2016 at 00:37 GMT Tom Patin wrote:

Bourgeois-8 and Bourgeois-820 are not ready to be merged because: Need evidence of parents shown in Bourgeois-8

On 24 Feb 2016 at 21:39 GMT Danielle Liard wrote:

Bourgeois-8 and Bourgeois-820 appear to represent the same person because: same man and wife, the father's actual first name needs to be sorted out, mother's name is identical (also needs checking though, was she truly a Bourgeois or is that 'marital' name?)

On 18 Feb 2016 at 18:13 GMT Jeannette (Martin) Saladino wrote:

I also have the Baptism document image in my Ancestry tree and have had it for quite some time now. Jacques Bourgeois is my 7th Great Grandfather!

Jeannette

On 26 Jun 2015 at 18:49 GMT Donna (Friebel) Storz wrote:

cont'd response from SAW:

"...that provides any solid indication that he might have been the same Jacques Bourgeois who emigrated to Acadia. That is why my Dictionnaire généalogique des familles acadiennes shows no origine for our ancestor Jacques Bourgeois. There must be at least a degree of probability of identity, in addition to a mere possibility, before such can be included in a publication like mine, particularly where, as here, the ancestor’s name was such a common one."

It seems we may want to revise the parental links (and perhaps make them so people can't reinsert the parents.)

more comments


Jacques is 28 degrees from Rosa Parks, 24 degrees from Anne Tichborne and 18 degrees from Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.

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