Citations and polish to be added later
The spelling of his name as "Boucher" appears to be a later invention, as it seems he preferred "Bauschar" himself, but had many variations. It seems his later descendants (specifically John Newton Boucher) asserted their own "Boucher" was the original spelling and applied it to him posthumously. Burkhardt preferred it because he seemed to be asserting connection to the Duchy of Lorraine, which has a number of french Bouchers. Daniel may be connected with them and the family may have originally spelled their family name Boucher, but this may have been generations before Daniel.
His name has been transcribed in a few variations, so scans of primary documents which contain his signature need to be scrutinized to determine the spelling Daniel used.
The Johan Daniel that arrived in Philadelphia aboard the Ranier in 1749 has been transcribed as "Johan Daniel Bauscher" by Burkhardt, "Joh. Daniel Baueshar" by Rupp, and "Johan Daniel Bauschar" by Strassburger. [Burkhardt, 60] [Rupp, 209-211] [Strassburger, 411-413]
The baptismal records of the New Bethel church have been transcribed rendering the family's name as Bauscher for all 38 entries between 1762 and 1816, as transcribed by Thomas via Leiby, translated by Hinke. This may be the result of deliberate standardization.[Leiby, 6-19]
His 1779 signature contained in the Remonstrance of Inhabitants of Berks County has been transcribed "Daniel Bauchers", by Unger via Linn & Egle.[Remonstrance of Inhabitants of Berks County]
His 1792 signature contained in the deed transfer to Philip is transcribed "Daniel Bauschar" by Burkhardt.[Burkhardt, 63]
After his death, he is referred to consistently as "Daniel Bausher" in the papers of the probate court.[Probate of Estate, 1806]
His sons William and Johann Peter at least seem to have retained the "Bauscher" spelling for a time, substituting the final 'a' for an 'e'.
Possible sources of an original signature include:
The only details of Daniel's origin that are certain are that he wrote (and presumably spoke) German as his primary language, and was a Lutheran. If he is the same man who arrived in Philadelphia aboard the Ranier in 1749 (Johan Daniel Baushar), his ship was assumed to be carrying persons from "the Palatinate upon the Rhine & Places adjacent" [Strassburger, 4]. A hypothetical individual that would have arrived as Burkhardt suggests, aboard the President in 1752, would be from the same areas.
Whether from the Electorate of the Palatinate (Kurfürstentum Pfalz) or the Duchy of Lorraine (Lothringen), he would be a citizen of the Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium). The Alsace region was at the time under the Kingdom of France (Royaume de France). Alsace-Lorraine is a division of Burkhardt's time, not Daniel's.
Daniel is unlikely to have emigrated because of religious persecution, being a Lutheran, and probably was not a refugee from war. He was likely drawn to America in the way that Gottlieb Mittelberger describes many to have; promised wealth and prosperity by Dutch "man-dealers".
Family legend that J.D.Bowsher arrived in the American Colonies aboard the ship 'President' are based on second and third hand accounts. The first source Burkhardt uses is Elias Bowsher (Isaac3, William2, Daniel1) whom spoke with his uncle Anthony (Anthony2, Daniel1) in 1853. Burkhardt writes:[Burkhardt, 13]
asserting that his [Anthony's] grandfather was named Daniel, who came from the German States of France about a hundred years before, and that he married soon after arriving in America.
The second is John Newton Boucher (Hiram4, David3, Henry2, Daniel1), who received information from his uncle John Boucher (Henry2, Daniel1)in 1880. John N. writes:[Burkhardt, 14]
My First ancestor in this country was Daniel, who came to America about 1752, coming from the 'German States' of France and crossing the ocean in a ship called the 'President'.
In these sources Burkhardt relies for all his information on the early life of Daniel.
His name can not be found in the rolls of that ship and any date ascribed to this arrival are conjecture. Arriving in 1752 is at odds with the same family tradition that says he married after arrival, as Johan Peter was born in April of 1753, meaning his mother would have conceived two months before the ship President made port in Sep 1752, let alone met and wed.
Of the 72 passengers listed for the ship President that arrived 27 Sep 1752, there is not a single variation on the surname Bauscher or the first name Daniel. [Strassburger, p.489-90]
A strong candidate for Daniel arrives aboard the ship Ranier 26 September, 1749. He is transcribed as "Johan Daniel Bauscher" by Burkhardt, "Joh. Daniel Baueshar" by Rupp, and "Johan Daniel Bauschar" by Strassburger. [Burkhardt, 60] [Rupp, 209-211] [Strassburger, 411-413]
It should be noted that not every passenger aboard arriving ships signed these declarations to be listed in ships rolls. It is possible that Daniel arrived in one of these ships and did not sign, and his name will not be listed. The ratio of passengers to signers has been estimated to be roughly 5:2. [Strassburger, XXXI]
To firmly settle the issue, a comparison should be made of the signature on the 1749 Declarations of Allegiance, Fidelity, and Abjuration of "Johan Daniel" with that of the signatures on the 1779 Remonstrance, the 1792 deed of Daniel to Philip, or any other signed document connected with "Ancestor Daniel".
Any claim of military service during the Revolutionary War for Daniel are unfounded.
The biography of F.A. Burkhardt, contained in Miller's 1906 History of Allen County, Ohio states that Daniel "was a soldier in the Revolutionary War," which was undoubtedly from information furnished by Burkhardt himself. However, by 1917 and his publishing of The Boucher Family this error seems to have been apparent to him and was omitted.
In 1779, Daniel paid a supply tax to the young United States. Also in 1779, he was one of 779 signers to the 1779 Remonstrance of Inhabitants of Berks County: a document to the Pennsylvania General Assembly which voices opposition to calling a convention to change the State constitution.
The tax and remonstrance are proof enough to the Daughter's of the American Revolution organization, that Johan Daniel was a patriotic American that supported the early United States. His female descendants are able to use his patriotic contributions to join their organization.
This does not, however, fulfill the requirements for membership to the Sons of the American Revolution organization, which requires ancestors with military or political service, or have offered assistance more directly to the Revolutionary military.
Daniel appears on tax records as early as 1760 in Albany Twp., Berks Co., Pennsylvania[Burkhardt, 61]. Daniel stayed in Albany Twp., and possibly the same location (due to lack of deed transfers) of 150 acres, for the remainder of his life. In 1792, he deeded to his son Philip the 153 acres, part of a tract called "Proprietary Manner", for ₤550[Burkhardt, 62-63] and likely lived with Philip afterwards.
A bible purported to belong to Daniel was in possession of Rueben Harpster (Rueben5, Anthony4, Elizabeth Bowsher3, Anthony2, Daniel1) of Cairo, OH around 1898 [Burkhardt, 17, 40]. It was a large, leather-bound volume appearing roughly 25 x 40cm, containing German, Lutheran text printed in 1748. It is assumed that Daniel brought this with him from his place of origin, although the publisher or printing location are not known.
On a blank page of this bible is an inscription in German that has been translated and transcribed by Burkhardt in two different ways:
Andon Boucher, born June 12 . . . . Brought with him . . . . 1755 [Burkhardt, 17]
Andon Boucher, born September 12, 1755 * * * brought with * * * [Burkhardt, 41]
This could be referencing the birth of Anthony/Antony whom is said to have been born 12 Jun 1755, although the source for this may be the Bible itself. Anthony was buried in an unmarked grave at the family cemetery, but a stone erected later with his military service gives his lifespan as 1752-1821.
Daniel and his family were members of the German, Lutheran and Reformed church originally called the Corner church in Albany township. According to Burkhardt [40, 54?], Daniel helped to build the church at one of the construction times. His son Philip appears to be especially involved in the church throughout his life.
It can not be said with confidence when Daniel died, as no primary document of his death appears to have survived. Burkhardt thought his death occurred about 1795[Burkhardt, 47], as his last signature of record was in 1793 (deed signed 1792, personally presented 1793), but this appears to be too early an estimate. He died intestate likely in late 1805, and his son, Philip Bausher, was made administrator of his estate on 20 January, 1806. After accounts were settled, his estate was valued just above ₤94.
No grave has been located, but he is likely to have been buried in the cemetery of the New Bethel church in Albany Twp., Berks County.
A great debt is owed to Frank Burkhardt for interviewing early Bowsher ancestors and compiling The Boucher Family, and to Kay Bowsher for discovering the inevitable mistakes in his work and contributing greatly with her own research a century later.
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On 25 Sep 2017 at 15:03 GMT Ellen Smith wrote:
Daniel is 21 degrees from Geoffrey Chaucer, 25 degrees from AJ Jacobs, 22 degrees from Michelle Ladner and 21 degrees from Queen Elizabeth II Windsor on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.