Teófilo Braga was born 24 Feb 1843 in Ponta Delgada in the Azores, son of Joaquim Manuel Fernandes Braga, from Braga, and Maria José da Câmara e Albuquerque (1815-1846), from the island of Santa Maria. He had a somewhat aristocratic pedigree, but grew up to be a republican and a secularist.
Teófilo was the youngest of seven children. His mother died when he was three. His father remarried two years later, and his relationship to his step-mother was poor. His father, a high-school teacher, died in the Azores Islands.
He graduated the University of Coimbra in 1868, obtained a law degree in 1872, and became a professor of Modern Literature in Lisbon that year.
He married Maria do Carmo Xavier (1841-1911) in Apr 1868. They had three children, but all died young, which was a great source of sadness to them: Joaquim (1869-1869), Teófilo (1873-1886), and Maria da Graça (1871-1887).
He was a politician and prolific writer, an exponent of philosophical and literary Positivism.
He served as President of the Provisional Government of the Portuguese Republic in 1910-1911. He was elected the second President of the First Portuguese Republic in 1915.
In later years he was a recluse widower in Lisbon. He died there in 1924, and was buried at Jerónimos Monastery in Belém, Lisbon.
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