With the defeat of the English at the Battle of Bannockburn, Robert the Bruce secured Scottish sovereignty. Until James VI and I ascended the throne, his descendants would rule Scotland for three hundred years.
↑ 1.01.11.21.31.41.5 Ashley, Mike (2008). A Brief History of British Kings & Queens. pp.158-161, 460-461. Philadelphia: Running Press Book Publishers. Print
↑ Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 209.
↑ G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume II, page 360.
↑ : Leslie Stephen, editor, Dictionary of National Biography (London, U.K.: Smith, Elder & Company, 1908), volume II, page 117-128.
↑ Sir James Balfour Paul, The Scots Peerage: founded on Wood's edition of Sir Robert Douglas's The Peerage of Scotland (Edinburgh, Scotland: David Douglas, 1904), volume 1, pages 7-8.
Pays homage to Edward I who beat John de Baliol in 1296, then refused to acknowledge another king of Scotland. Bruce later abandons Edward's cause and joins other Scot leaders in taking up arms for independence. For this he was attainted.
Fled to highlands, then island of Rathlin on Antrim (now in Northern Ireland) coast. In his absence, his estates were confiscated, and he and his followers were excommunicated. He continued to recruit followers, however, and in less than two years he wrested nearly all of Scotland from the English.
In later years Bruce was stricken with leprosy [this is disputed - some say that this applies to his father or grandfather] and lived in seclusion at Cardross Castle, Cardross, Argyllshire, Scotland on the northern shore of the Firth of Clyde where he died.
His body was buried at Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland. But his heart is at Melrose. Embalmed, it was to be taken on crusade by his lieutenant and friend Sir James Douglas to the Holy Land, but only reached Moorish Granada, where it acted as a talisman for the Scottish contingent at the Battle of Teba.
He was succeeded by his son, David II. Bruce's nephew, Robert II, who succeeded David, was the first king of the Stuart house of English and Scottish royalty.
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