Heman Buckingham

Heman Chapin Buckingham (1812 - 1881)

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Heman Chapin Buckingham
Born in Georgetown, Madison, New York, United Statesmap
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married in Madison County, New Yorkmap
Husband of — married in Madison County, New Yorkmap
Husband of — married in Benton Co., Oregonmap
Descendants descendants
Died in Benton, Oregonmap
Profile last modified | Created 3 Jan 2017 | Last significant change: 29 May 2019
16:51: Caryl (Short) Ruckert edited the Primary Photo for Heman Chapin Buckingham (1812-1881). [Thank Caryl for this]
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Heman Buckingham was involved in the westward expansion of the USA.
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This profile is part of the Buckingham Name Study.

Wagon Train Details

"Wagon Trains", large groups of covered wagons that travelled together for safety and protection, were a common way for pioneers to travel as they migrated west. These are the known details of the wagon train this person travelled on:

Wagon Trail:Southern Route (Applegate Trail)
Departure Date:15 Apr 1846
Train Name:
Trail Master:Capt. Josephus Cornwall
Point of Origin:Missouri
Point of Muster:Missouri
Destination:Willamette Valley

For more information on wagon trains you can also check out the Trails and Wagon Trains sub-project

The summary from Emigrants to Oregon in 1846 gives these details for Heman:
SR: BUCKINGHAM, Heman Chapin (1812-1881): m1. Laura KINNEY (1811-1835); m2. 1837 Betsey TRUMBULL ( -1847); m3. 1850 Matilda Jane STARR (1833-1885); s/o Reuben and Philena (Chapin) Buckingham; settled originally at Oregon City where he operated a store; 1850 moved to Benton County where he took up a DLC; bur Bellfountain Cemetery, Benton Co, OR. (note: SR: is the abbreviation for Southern Route) [1]
Oregon Trail


Heman Chapin Buckingham was born in western New York on 15 Mar 1812.[2] to Reuben Buckingham and Philena Chapin. [3][4][5][6][7]
The Puritan
Heman Buckingham is descendant of the Buckingham family of Connecticut. He is the 5th great grandson of the puritan immigrant Thomas Buckingham and his wife, Hannah. Thomas was a founder of Milford, Connecticut as well as the Congregational Church in New Haven, Connecticut which became Yale University.[8]
Through his mother Philena Chapin, Heman is descendant of the Chapin family of Massachusetts.[9] Heman is the 3rd great grandson of Deacon Samuel Chapin who was a prominent early settler of Springfield. Deacon Chapin served the town as selectman, magistrate and deacon. Chapin is best known today as the subject of the Augustus Saint-Gaudens sculpture entitled Deacon Samuel Chapin (also known as The Puritan). [10]Deacon Samuel Chapin

From New York State to Oregon

Heman's father, Reuben Buckingham , migrated from Old Saybrook, Connecticut to Madison County, New York in 1806. According to Our county and its people : a descriptive and biographical record of Madison County. "Reuben Buckingham, a native of Connecticut, settled in Georgetown in 1806, on the south line on a farm of 160 acres, and died there in 1828."[11]
After the death of his father in 1828 when Heman was just 16 years old, we find Philena and Heman listed in the 1830 U.S. Census living in Georgetown with Philena as head of household.[12]
Heman Buckingham is listed on the 1840 United States Federal Census as living in Israel, Preble, Ohio. He is living with Betsy, Randolph, Joel and his mother Philena.[13] By 1843 the family had moved to Iowa where Lovina Buckingham was born.[14]

1846 Oregon Bound

In 1846, Jesse and Lindsay Applegate laid out a southern route that took overlanders from Fort Hall on the Snake River, southwest along the upper Humboldt River, across present-day Nevada and California to Klamath Lake and northwest to the southern Willamette Valley. Although the route was never as heavily used as the Barlow Road, the Applegate Trail led thousands of people to Oregon.[15]Applegate Trail
The Buckinghams along with many other families on the trail that year followed the advice of Applegate and took the new southern route. It typically took emigrants four to six months to travel the distance to Oregon.[16] The Buckinghams and the other unfortunate overlanders of 1846 would spend over eight months to reach their destination.
The Boone family was also on the trail at the time and took the new southern route. In the article The Boone Family - Emigrated 1846. by Bethany Nemec, we learn that when the Boones reached the South Pass they saw the party led by George Donner break off to follow an unknown route promoted by Hastings. Then at Fort Hall they decide to take the new "Applegate Trail". This proved to be a mistake. The Applegate Trail was a hard road through difficult terrain with limited access to water. To make matters worse, the Native Americans of southern Oregon and northern California were extremely hostile to the overlanders and frequently harassed them. It was Christmastime when the Boones finally reached the settlements in the Willamette Valley."[17] The Buckinghams also arrived in Oregon in December of 1846 and certainly could have been among those traveling with the Boone family. [3]
Statesman Journal 24 May 1993.
Joseph Cornwall, wagon train captain, wrote about the journey of 1846 over the southern route.
"We reached Fort Hall and camped there for a day's rest. There Mr. Applegate came to us and told us of his new way to Oregon, through the Rogue River Valley. Our company concluded his way was the best and talked of going that way. Soon the Oregon and California roads would part, and he would have us follow the California road to a point on the Humboldt River, and then head north for Oregon. There seemed to be one mind, to take the Applegate road, under a delusion that it was shorter and perhaps better road. We shall see that was a fatal mistake. I may say here that there was one train of emigrants in advance of us bound for Oregon."[18]
1846 proved to be a fateful year for many of the overlanders heading west. With the trail being in the condition that it was in, the "emigrants themselves had to make the trail passable for wagons from this point on, delaying their progress. Levi Scott would later write that for much of the return trip, each morning he had to go ahead, search out the route, and then help make the road passable before the wagons could follow." Paul Kane sketched this scene on his 1846 journey to Oregon.[19]
A Winter Scene in the Rockies
"Finally on the morning of October 26, 1846 the lead wagons started into the canyon and on October 27 it began to rain and will pour rain for at least the next seven days; this same storm will catch the Donner Party in the mountains in California. All who passed through Canyon Creek in 1846 suffered great loss; seven died in the canyon, and many more would have died without the relief trains that were coming down the trail to meet them. Several relief trains were organized, including one by the Applegate’s, and the largest one was led by Thomas Holt who had arrived in Oregon in 1844."[19]
"We went a short day's journey and camped. Next day we crossed the Calapooia Mountain and reached the Willamette Valley. We passed down the valley on the west side over the sites where the towns of Cottage Grove, Eugene, Corvallis and Dallas now are, and it is hard to realize that it was all a wilderness then. But so it was. We passed on down to Chehalem Valley, where the parties lived who rescued us. And then we were at the end of our journey to Oregon. And now I am glad that I have finished my narrative. (signed) J. H. Cornwall."[18]
Summit of Calapooia Mountain in 1908
On the journey to Oregon, Heman and Betsey suffered the loss of their son Joel Trumbull Buckingham in June.[1] By the time the Heman and Betsy reached the trail's end in Rickreall in late December, Betsy was ill and died shortly after in early 1847.[1]
Heman and Betsy Buckingham left Missouri in April and arrived in Oregon in December of 1846.[1][4][5]

Life in Oregon

After Heman arrived in Oregon he operated a store in Oregon City until 1850.[20] [7]
Oregon City on the Willamette River
In June of 1847 a company headed by Cornelius Gilliam set out with the intentions of exploring the Rogue River and Klamath valleys.[21] Later that year, Gilliam was appointed colonel of a regiment of volunteers to avenge the November 1847 killing of Marcus and Narcissa Whitman and others at their mission. Heman C. Buckingham was among the names of those listed in that company.[22]Clackamas County History 1844 to 1848
Heman and his children were in Oregon when the 1847 Mt. St. Helen's eruption was witnessed and sketched by Paul Kane. Kane wrote about the experience in his book and described:
Mount St Helens erupting at night by Paul Kane
"When we arrived at the mouth of the Kattlepoutal River, twenty-six miles from Fort Vancouver, I stopped to make a sketch of the volcano, Mount St. Helen's, distant, I suppose, about thirty or forty miles...There was not a cloud visible in the sky at the time I commenced my sketch, and not a breath of air was perceptible: suddenly a stream of white smoke shot up from the crater of the mountain, and hovered a short time over its summit; it then settled down like a cap. This shape it retained for about an hour and a-half, and then gradually disappeared. "[23]

California Gold Rush

When gold was found in 1849 the early pioneers in Oregon knew about it well in advance of the rest of the nation.

"So by the time the New York Herald got the word and announced it for the first time on the Eastern Seaboard on Aug. 19, Oregonians had already been pouring over the border to the gold fields for a month. By the time the first ships crammed with gold-rushers got to San Francisco Bay eight months later (remember, there was no Panama Canal yet; they had to sail around Patagonia) the Oregonians had already spent most of a very productive summer and autumn scrounging up the “easy pickin’s” and staking out their pick of available claims.[24]

Mount Hood by Albert Bierstadt.
From They laughed, too. by Edna Mintonye we learn, In 1849 Heman [BUCKINGHAM] took his fourteen year old son, Randolph, to the gold fields with him. They were fairly successful and returned after several months with a good stake... Mr. BUCKINGHAM brought his children to this area [Alpine], liked what he saw, and took the claim just south of Orrin BELKNAP. In the fall of 1850, the seventeen year old daughter of Rev. John STARR, Matilda Jane, became the wife of Heman C. BUCKINGHAM.[25]
"When they returned to their neglected farms, these Oregonians brought back millions in gold...As the California gold fields filled up with Easterners and treasure-seekers from around the world, most of the Oregonians came home. Some got skunked, but many returned with pockets bulging, and all of them found that they could almost name their price for anything they could grow. Now that mining the mines was no longer particularly profitable, Oregonians found they could do even better by “mining the miners.” "[24]

1850 Donation Land Claim

In July 1843, the Provisional Government of Oregon, made up of mostly American settlers, provided a means to claim up to 640 acres, a full square mile. Oregon became a US territory in 1848. The Donation Land Law of 1850 formalized the land law granting a single man 320 acres, with an additional 320 acres to his wife if he was married. Land claim options changed frequently over the next few years until national establishment of the Homestead Act in 1862. [26] [27]
Heman had filed a land claim with the provisional government in 1847 in Lewis County and again in 1848 in Benton County for Heman Buckingham (citing Provisional Land Grant 20 Nov 1847 Vol 6 Pg 166; Provisional Land Grant 31 Aug 1848 Vol 8 pg 101).[3]
The 1854 survey of Willamette by Charles K. Gardner shows the Buckingham claim. [28]
Township No. 14 South Range No. 6 West Willamette Meridan 1854 Survey.
"Arguably the most generous federal land sale to the public in American history, the law legitimized the 640-acre claims provided in 1843 under the Provisional Government, with the provision that white male citizens were entitled to 320 acres and their wives were eligible for 320 acres. For citizens arriving after 1850, the acreage limitation was halved, so a married couple could receive a total of 320 acres. To gain legal title to property, claimants had to reside and make improvements on the land for four years."[29]
Heman and Matilda Buckingham received 640 acres under Donation Land Claim Act of 1850. The original grant OC 0832 was for land in sections 11, 12, 13 and 14.[30]
Page 015 - Township 14 S., Range 6 W.W.M., Bellfountain, Glenbrook, Dawson
Land descriptions for Heman and Matilda.
"The Donation Land Law was significant in shaping the course of Oregon history. By the time the law expired in 1855, approximately 30,000 white immigrants had entered Oregon Territory, with some 7,000 individuals making claims to 2.5 million acres of land. The overwhelming majority of the claims were west of the Cascade Mountains. Oregon’s population increased from 11,873 in 1850 to some 60,000 by 1860."[29]
In 1865 Heman and Matilda received the patent for their claim.[30]
DLC Land Patent for Heman and Matilda Buckingham

Political Life and the Oregon Legislature

Heman Buckingham[31] was elected to represent Benton county in the 7th Territorial Legislative Assembly in the 1855 Regular Session as a Democrat.
The 1855 Oregon Territorial Capitol.
He served in the house from December 3, 1855 - January 31, 1856[32]Oregon Territorial Legislature Chronological List of Oregon’s Legislatures
The 1855 legislative session began in Corvallis in the ongoing dispute over which city would become the capital. Late in December the body moved back to Salem where the capitol building was nearing completion, but the building burned down on December 29, 1855.[33][34]
Heman is listed in the 1875 membership directory of the Oregon Pioneer Association.[35]


Heman first married Laura Kinney on 7 Feb 1833 in Madison County, New York. Laura died 7 days after the birth of their first child, Randolph Chapin Buckingham on 11 May 1835.[36][3][20][36][37][7]
Heman married a second time to Betsy Trumbull on 16 Apr 1837 in Madison County, New York. Betsy accompanied Heman on the journey to Oregon got ill on the trail and died shortly after arriving in the Willamette Valley.[20][3][37][7]
Heman married for a third time to Matilda Jane Starr on the 24 Sep 1850 in Benton County, Oregon.[4][3][20][37]


Heman was the father of 14 children. His will mentions the names all of his children with the exception of Joel, Franklin and Pauline who died before Heman.[38]
Joel died on the journey in Oregon in 1846.[1] Pauline and Franklin both died young at about 20 years old in Benton. They died on the same day, 20 March 1874 of measles.[25]
Heman and Laura Kinney
Randolph Chapin Buckingham b. 4 May 1835 in New York d. 24 May 1863 in Oregon.[39][38]
Heman and Betsy Trumbull had the following children:
Joel Trumbull Buckingham b. 1838 in New York d. 1846.[1]
George Washington Buckingham b. 24 July 1840 in Ohio d. 22 Apr 1900. [40][38]
Lovina Philena Buckingham b. 27 Feb 1843 in Iowa d. 5 Oct 1903.[38][41][38]
Heman and Matilda Jane Starr had the following children:
Precious Buckingham Pruett b. 30 Aug 1851 in Oregon d. 14 Jun 1924.[42][38]
Franklin Pierce Buckingham b. 03 Mar 1853 in Oregon d. 20 Mar 1874[43]
Pauline Gertrude Buckingham b. 19 Nov 1854 in Oregon d. 20 Mar 1874[44]
Augustus Humphrey Buckingham b. 22 Jul 1857 in Oregon d. 24 Nov 1918[45] [38]
Eliza Deette Buckingham Barrows b. 18 Oct 1859 in Oregon d. 16 Aug 1909[46][38]
Mary W Buckingham Williams b. 17 Sep 1861 d. 25 Feb 1891[38] [47]
Heman Victor Buckingham 1866–1947[38]
Nancy Edith Buckingham 1868 [38]
John Reuben Buckingham 1870–1927[38]
Winifred Lillian Buckingham Woodcock 1873–1945[38]


Heman Chapin Buckingham died in 30 April 1881 in Bellfountain, Benton, Oregon.[6][48]
Heman Chapin Buckingham Death Notice
"There died at his residence near Monroe, April 30, 1881, H. C. Buckingham, who was born in Chenango, New York, March 15, 1812. He came to Oregon in 1847, and in 1850 settled on the land in Benton county, on which he died. Mr. Buckingham was a prominent member of society, universally respected by all who knew him; a good citizen, an upright man and a consistent christian. He left a wife and family besides a large circle of friends to mourn his departure to the unknown realities of the other world."[6]
"Heman Chapin Buckingham, who came to the area in 1848, took up a Donation Land Claim just south of Bellfountain. He also purchased a part of the Jonas Belknap Donation Land Claim, and in the early 1850's donated ground for the cemetery. This land was first deeded to a Board of Trustees to be held for the use of the community; later a corporation was formed. The cemetery plat was filed with Benton County in March 1900. Additional land was donated by J. P. and Vernon GRAGG."
"tho lost to sight to memory dear".
"The cemetery now contains a total of 11 acres. The oldest marked grave (22 July 1859) is that of the infant daughter of J. and P. KELSEY. It is likely that there were burials earlier in that decade. It is not known which is the oldest part of the cemetery. There is no overall map and early records were burned. The sexton has the names of plot owners in some sections of the cemetery. The oldest extant record is a map drawn on a piece of wood. The Annex rows are in a new area to the west of the old cemetery. Annex rows are numbered from north to south."[49]
Written on his obelisk with Matilda Jane Starr Buckingham (3rd wife): Son of Reuben & Philena Chapin Buckingham. 1st married Laura Kinney, 2nd married Betsy Trumbull.[48]
He is buried in Bellfountain Cemetery, Bellfountain, Benton County, Oregon, USA Plot: 5S.[48]

Will and Probate

Heman's will was written on 30 July 1879.[38]

I, Heman C. Buckingham being sixty seven (67) years of age and at present a resident of Benton County of the State of Oregon, do publish and declare this to be my last will and testament.
First: I do desire that my funeral expenses and all my just debts to be fully paid out of my estate.
Secondly: I devise to the heirs of Randolph C. Buckingham deceased, to wit; Laura K. and Arthur B. Buckingham the sum of one dollar each, having heretofore given to their father, my son Randolph C. Buckingham his portion of my estate.
Thirdly: I devise and give to my son George W. the sum of one dollar having heretofore given him his proportion of my estate.
Fourthly: I devise and give to my daughter Lovina P. Gragg the sum of one dollar having heretofore given her her proportion of my estate.
Fifthly: I devise and give to my sons Augustus H. and Heman V. R. and John R. Buckingham all of the south half of my land claim No. 53 in Township 14 S., Range 6 W in Willamette meridan in Benton County, State of Oregon, to be divided equals share and share alike.
Sixthly: I devise and give to my daughters Precious and Eliza D. and Mary M. and Nancy E. and Lillian W. the sum of one hundred dollars ($100) each.
Seventhly: I devise and give to my wife Matilda J. all of my personal estate, goods, & chattels.
Lastly: I appoint J. Manly Cumier as my Executor to serve as he may wish.
Witness my hand and seal and done on this 30th day of July 1879. (signed Heman C. Buckingham)
Heman's will was probated on 18 May 1881 in Benton, Oregon. (Case File, No 370, Henderson, Wilson-Carter, Smiley)[38]

WPA Interviews

Interview -- George R. BUCKINGHAM September 1938
Mr. BUCKINGHAM was interviewed at his home about one and one-half miles southwest of Belfountain, where he farms a part of his grandfather's donation land claim. Being of the third generation he knew little directly of the early days but was able to supply valuable and interesting items.[20]
"My grandfather, Heman C. BUCKINGHAM, came from Illinois to Oregon in 1846. He left New York State in 1845 but was too late to make the train and so stayed in Missouri until the next year. He came first to Oregon City where he conducted some sort of a store until 1850. He then came to this community and took a donation land claim. This is how he located here."
"Grandfather and his partner had driven a wagon to Eugene looking for a location. They were not satisfied with the prospect there and sold their team, but loaded their wagon on two canoes and started down the river to Oregon City again. Some where about east of here they were wrecked and swam out to the west bank of the Willamette. When they got on to higher ground they saw a light and tramped some miles across country to reach shelter. The light was at the home of Thomas REEVES who had the claim about two miles northeast of Bellfountain. The REEVES had been kept up with a sick child. They took in the unfortunate men, and furnished them with a horse to get back to Oregon City. Then grandfather moved here."
"Grandfather had first married in New York but his wife died with their first child. Later he married Betsy TRUMBULL and moved to Illinois, and later to Oregon. This second wife died soon after coming to this state, leaving two children, Lavina, and George W. Lavina married a man named GRAGG and her descendants are living north of Bellfountain. After coming to Bellfountain grandfather married my grandmother, Matilda STARR, daughter of John STARR. Their children were Precious (PRUETT), Augustus H. (my father), Deete S., John, Edith (RAYBURN), Winifred (WOODCOCK). Grandfather lived the rest of his life on the farm here. He was a staunch Republican and served one term as state representative at Salem. I do not know the date but think it was before the Civil War."
Interview -- Mrs. Florence B. BUCKINGHAM STARR May 1939
Mrs. STARR was interviewed at her home on North "L" Street in Philomath. She tells readily and dependably of the family doings since early days. She said:[50]
"My grandfather, Heman BUCKINGHAM, came to Oregon in 1846. The party was the first to come down the Cow Creek Canyon to Eugene. They did not stay in Eugene long, but went to Polk County, somewhere near the Stump ranch, where they stayed for about six months. Grandfather's wife (his second) died there. Grandfather stayed in Oregon City for a while and then was in California for a short time. About 1850 he moved to the Bellfountain district where he lived the rest of his life."
"My grandfather's first wife was Laura KINNEY who died in the East at the birth of the first child. Then he married Bessie Jane HEMENWAY, who was my grandmother. Her children were George (my father), Lovina and two or three who died in infancy. After coming to Bellfountain he married Matilda STARR, sister to Silas Starr who is now living in Corvallis."
"Grandfather BUCKINGHAM's children were Randolph, George, Lovina, Frank, Pauline, Augustus, Victor, Precious, Molly (Mary?), Deete, John, Edith, and Winifred. Lovina, my father's full sister, married Joseph GRAGG and her children are still living in the Bellfountain neighborhood. Precious married Dr. James PRUETT, who for years lived in Pendelton and practiced medicine for miles in every direction. Molly married a man named Ed WILLIAMS. Edith is Mrs. Ed RAYBORN of Portland and Winifred married Vern WOODCOCK, son of Bill WOODCOCK who had a store in Monroe."
"My mother was Alice McCAIN. Grandfather McCAIN came from Kentucky. I do not know what year he came but he was not among the earliest comers. I was born in 1871. After me came Manley and Ruby. My sister is now Mrs. Harry WOODS and lives in California."
"All my life has been spent in the county except for a short stay in California when I was a girl. I attended school at Bellfountain. Among my teachers were Minerva STARR, Heman GRAGG, Betty GRAGG, Maria STARR and Bert PETERSON."
"Father's children were always regular in attendance at church services and Sunday School, but he did not object to our dancing. The biggest occasions in the early days were the camp meetings at the Bellfountain camp grounds. Here was a fine spring and grove. There is still a grove there but not the same trees. The big fir trees that were near the spring have fallen and most of the old oaks have been cut. The trees that furnished shade about the camp now were just saplings when I was a girl."
"The camp-meetings were held by the United Brethren or by the Methodists. Sometimes both denominations would join in a meeting, and occasionally other denominations would have a part. Rev. I.D. DRIVER, the well known Methodist preacher of Oregon a generation or more ago, was a frequent visitor. He used to stay at Grandfather's. Henry BRISTOW taught singing school. When singing school or spelling school did not hold too late a party of young people would often arrange for a dance at one of the neighbors. There were always neighborhood affairs and well behaved."
"My husband is George STARR, the son of James STARR and the grand-son of George M. STARR. When Grandfather STARR came to Oregon, James STARR was but two years old and he was left with his grandparents to raise. He married in Missouri and had a family when he came west for the first time in 1890. My husband was twenty-one years old then, and we were married the next year. We have spent our life on farms in Benton County. Our children are Emmett, Inez, Orpha, Amy, Cora, Manley, and Marion. Emmett lives at Siletz, in Lincoln County. The others are all nearer home. Orpha married Roy TODD, Amy married Ben CAMERON and Cora married Andy CAMERON"


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Flora, Stephenie. Emigrants To Oregon In 1846. 2017. Accessed November 18, 2017. Oregon in 1846 summary for Heman Buckingham
  2. Chapman, F. W. The Buckingham family, or, The descendants of Thomas Buckingham: one of the first settlers of Milford, Conn. Boston, MA: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1986., for birth of Heman in Mar. 1812
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 "Oregon Secretary of State." Oregon Secretary of State: Early Oregonians Database Index Accessed November 18, 2017. Early Oregonian Heman Buckingham for birth of Heman to Reuben and Philena
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Stevens, Glenda comp. Genealogical material in Oregon donation land claims. Portland, Or. Genealogical Forum of Portland, 1957. No. 832 for Heman arrival in Oregon in 1846. Genealogical Material Found in Oregon Land Donation Claims
  5. 5.0 5.1 “Oregon, Biographical and Other Index Card File, 1700s-1900s,” database and digital images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 18 November 2017), citing card for Heman (Homan) C. Buckingham, Oregon, Biographical and Other Cards. Oregon Historical Society, Portland, Oregon. citing Heman born in New York in 1812
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Fagan, David D., and Ed Stratton. History of Benton County, Oregon: including its geology, topography, soil and productions, together with the early history of the Pacific Coast, compiled from the most authentic sources: a full political history, comprising a tabular statement of officers of the county since its formation: incidents of pioneer life and biographical sketches of early and prominent citizens: also containing the history of the cities, towns, churches, schools, secret societies, etc. 1885 ed. Salem, MA: Higginson Book Company, 1997. pg. 349 for H. C. Buckingham. History of Benton County Oregon
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Portrait and biographical record of the Willamette Valley, Oregon: containing original sketches of many well known citizens of the past and present. Chicago, IL: Chapman Pub. Co., 1903. archive.org
  8. Kulp, Geo B. The Luzerne Legal Register. Vol. 13. Wilkes-Barre, PA: Publisher not identified, 1888. pgs. 374 - 375 for Buckingham family origins
  9. Orange Chapin, The Chapin Genealogy: containing a very large proportion of the descendants of Dea. Samuel Chapin. (printers Metcalf & Company, 1862) for Chapin family origins
  10. "Samuel Chapin." Wikipedia. October 21, 2017. Accessed November 21, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Chapin.
  11. Smith, John E., Our county and its people : a descriptive and biographical record of Madison County, New York. Boston: Boston History Co., 1899. citing Part I. Chapter IX. Settlement and organization of Lenox, Fenner, and Georgetown, pg. 146
  12. "United States Census, 1830," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XHPZ-1VS : 19 August 2017), Philina Buckingham, Georgetown, Madison, New York, United States; citing 283, NARA microfilm publication M19, (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 93; FHL microfilm 17,153. citing Philena (incorrectly transcribed as Philiner) as head of household female 50-59 and Heman male 15-19
  13. "United States Census, 1840," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XHRR-14T : 20 August 2017), Heman C Buckinham, Israel Township, Preble, Ohio, United States; citing p. 52, NARA microfilm publication M704, (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 421; FHL microfilm 20,174. citing Heman living in Ohio. Males - Under 5 = 1 (Joel b. 1838); Males - 5 thru 9 = 1 (Randolph b. 1835); Males - 20 thru 29 = 1 (Heman b. 1812); Females - 20 thru 29 = 1 (Betsy b. 1811 - 1820); Females - 60 thru 69 = 1 (Philena Chapin Buckingham b. 1772).
  14. "United States Census, 1860", database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MDQV-6K5 : 26 July 2017), Heman C Buckingham. citing Heman C Buckingham, 1860 citing Lovina Buckingham born 1843 in Iowa.
  15. Lang, William L. "Oregon Trail." The Oregon Encyclopedia. Accessed November 21, 2017. citing description of Southern Route.Oregon Trail
  16. Underwood, Todd. "The Oregon Trail." Frontier Trails - Adventures in History. Accessed November 22, 2017. http://www.frontiertrails.com/oldwest/oregontrail.htm., citing typical time for traveling the Oregon Trail from Missouri to Oregon to be 4 - 6 months
  17. Nemec, Bethany. "The Boone Family - Emigrated 1846." The Boone Family – Emigrated 1846. Accessed November 22, 2017. citing details of the journey over the southern route. The Boone Family - Emigrated 1846
  18. 18.0 18.1 Cornwall, Joseph H. Narrative of Joseph Cornwall Crossing the Plains to Oregon in 1846. 1900. TS CB C816, Special Collections & University Archives, University of Oregon Libraries, Eugene. citing details of the journey over the southern route UO Special Collections see transcript at Narrative of Joseph Cornwall
  19. 19.0 19.1 Applegate Trail - History of the Southern Route. Oregon-California Trails Association. Citing the emigrants working to clear the trail and citing the late October storm that doomed the Donner Party and devastated the wagon trains on the Southern Route. Accessed November 22, 2017. http://www.octa-trails.org/articles/applegate-trail.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 Phinney, Mark, Danell Aukerman, eds. WPA Historical Records Survey, Benton County Oregon. Philomath: Benton County Historical Society, 2000. Index. 457 pages. interview by Mark Phinney of George Buckingham grandson of Heman. WPA Interview with Heman's grandson George
  21. Bancroft, Hubert Howe, and Frances Auretta (Fuller) Barrett Victor. History of Oregon. San Francisco: History Company, 1886. citing Heman C. Buckingham accompanied Gilliam on the exploration of the Rogue Valley pg. 567 archive.org
  22. Doyle, Susan Badger. "Cornelius Gilliam (1798 - 1848)." The Oregon Encyclopedia. October 6, 2017. citing Gilliam company of 1847. Accessed November 21, 2017. Oregon Encyclopedia.
  23. Kane, Paul. Wanderings of an artist among the Indians of North America: from Canada to Vancouvers Island and Oregon through the Hudsons Bay Companys territory and back again. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans and Roberts, 1859. citing his description of the Mt. St. Helen's eruption in 1847 on pgs. 199-200. archive.org
  24. 24.0 24.1 John, Finn J.D., Oregon had inside track on California's gold rush. Offbeat Oregon History. November 5, 2009. Accessed November 23, 2017. 'Oregon had inside track on California's gold rush
  25. 25.0 25.1 Mintonye, Edna A. They laughed, too. San Antonio: Naylor Co., 1968.
  26. Oregon Trail History. Oregon Trail Interpretive Center | Baker City. Accessed November 24, 2017. https://www.trailtenders.org/oregon-trail-history. citing article details about 1843 Provisional Government and the history of the Donation land law
  27. Bergquist, James M. The Oregon Donation Act and the National Land Policy. Oregon Historical Quarterly 58, no. 1 (1957): 17-35. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20612302. citing pg. 18 where settlers received 640 acres
  28. Original Survey Oregon - Willamette Survey Details - BLM GLO Records. Accessed November 25, 2017. https://glorecords.blm.gov/details/survey/default.aspx?dm_id=331011&sid=nwj3lsuf.yyx#surveyDetailsTabIndex=0. citing survey of Benton County to include the claim of Heman Buckingham
  29. 29.0 29.1 Robbins, William G. Oregon Donation Land Act. The Oregon Encyclopedia. 2017. Accessed November 24, 2017. oregonencyclopedia.org
  30. 30.0 30.1 General Land Office Records. Land Patent for Heman C. and Matilda Jane Buckingham CDI Details - BLM GLO Records. Accessed November 25, 2017. https://glorecords.blm.gov/details/cdi/default.aspx?doc_id=1529016&sid=rcvbxxgk.131#cdiDetailsTabIndex=0. Authority: OR-Donation Act(Grant) [September 27, 1850] (009 Stat. 0496) BLM Serial Nr: OROCAA 019545 Metes/Bounds: No LR-2000 Doc ID: 832 Counties: Benton. citing article details on their land patent including image of the patent
  31. Laws of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Oregon enacted during the seventh regular session thereof, begun Dec. 3, 1855 and concluded Jan. 31, 1846 , the 80th year of the independence of the United States. Salem, Or.: Asahel Bush, Territorial Printer, 1856. citing page titled Territorial Officers - House of Representatives: H.C. Buckingham from Benton County. hathitrust.org
  32. Duniway, David. Members of the legislature of Oregon, 1843-1967. Salem, Or.: The Archives, 1968. H. C. Buckingham Benton 1 District Democrat. Territorial Government Period - 1855
  33. Oregon Territorial Legislature. Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Accessed November 25, 2017. http://enacademic.com/dic.nsf/enwiki/6666429#cite_note-Oregon-2. citing details of the 1855 Territorial Legislature
  34. Corning, Howard McKinley. Dictionary of Oregon history. Portland, Or.: Binford & Mort Pub., 1989. citing citing pg. 64 for 1855 legislative session.
  35. Oregon Pioneer Association. Transactions of the Oregon Pioneer Association. Salem, Or.: E.M. Waite, Book and Job Printer, 1875. pg. 76. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101078192216;view=1up;seq=336
  36. 36.0 36.1 "Find A Grave Index," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:QV25-CNCK : 13 December 2015), Laura Buckingham, 1835; Burial, Otselic, Chenango, New York, United States of America, Maple Grove Cemetery; citing record ID 76690276, Find a Grave, http://www.findagrave.com. citing tombstone inscription: Wife of Herman C. Buckingham ( age 22 yrs.)
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 "Pioneers of South Benton County Oregon." RootsWeb's WorldConnect Project: Pioneers of South Benton County Oregon. Accessed November 18, 2017. entry for Heman Buckingham for marriage to Betsey Trumball
  38. 38.00 38.01 38.02 38.03 38.04 38.05 38.06 38.07 38.08 38.09 38.10 38.11 38.12 38.13 38.14 Oregon, Wills and Probate Records, 1849-1963. Citing the will of H. C. Buckingham proved 19 May 1881; (Online database: Ancestry.com. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com, Operations, Inc., 2015.) Original data: Oregon County, District and Probate Courts: Case File, No 370, Henderson, Wilson-Carter, Smiley. Images 1030 and 1031. citing Will of H. C. Buckingham names children Randolph, George W. Buckingham, Lovina, Precious, Augustus H., Eliza Deette, Mary W, Heman V., Nancy E., John R., Lillian W.. https://www.ancestry.com/sharing/16216197?h=b45ce
  39. "Oregon Secretary of State." Oregon Secretary of State Archives Division: Early Oregonian Person Profile for Randolph C. Buckingham. Accessed November 18, 2017. iting Randolph Buckingham b. 4 May 1835 to Heman Buckingham and Laura Kinney Randolph Buckingham
  40. "Oregon Secretary of State." Oregon Secretary of State: Early Oregonians Database Index Accessed November 18, 2017. citing George Washington Buckingham b. 24 July 1840 to Heman Buckingham and Betsy Jane Trumbull d. 22 Apr 1900 Early Oregonian George Washington Buckingham
  41. Death Certificate for Lovina Philena Gragg, 5 October 1903, File No. 189, County of Benton, City of Bellfountain, State of Oregon. citing birth 27 Feb 1843 and death 5 Oct 1903.Find A Grave Memorial # 35739909
  42. "Oregon Secretary of State." Oregon Secretary of State: Early Oregonians Database Index Accessed November 18, 2017. citing Precious Buckingham b. 30 Aug 1851 to Heman Buckingham and Matilda Starr d. 14 Jun 1924 Early Oregonian Precious Buckingham
  43. "Oregon Secretary of State." Oregon Secretary of State: Early Oregonians Database Index Accessed November 18, 2017. citing Franklin Pierce Buckingham b. 03 Mar 1853 to Heman Buckingham and Matilda Starr d. 20 Mar 1874 Early Oregonian Franklin Pierce Buckingham
  44. "Oregon Secretary of State." Oregon Secretary of State: Early Oregonians Database Index Accessed November 18, 2017. citing for Pauline Gertrude Buckingham born to Heman Buckingham and Matilda Starr b. 19 Nov 1854 d. 20 Mar 1874.Early Oregonian Pauline Gertrude Buckingham
  45. "Oregon Secretary of State." Oregon Secretary of State: Early Oregonians Database Index Accessed November 18, 2017. for Augustus Humphrey Buckingham born to Heman Buckingham and Matilda Starr b. 22 Jul 1857 d. 24 Nov 1918. Early Oregonian Augustus Humphrey Buckingham
  46. "Oregon Secretary of State." Oregon Secretary of State: Early Oregonians Database Index Accessed November 18, 2017. citing Eliza Deette Buckingham born to Heman Buckingham and Matilda Starr b. 18 Oct 1859 d. 16 Aug 1909 Early Oregonian Eliza Deette Buckingham
  47. "Find A Grave Index," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:QVK4-4VCM : 11 July 2016), Mary W Buckingham Williams, 1891; Burial, Bellfountain, Benton, Oregon, United States of America, Bellfountain Cemetery; citing record ID 36139291, citing birth 17 Sep 1961 and death 25 Feb 1891 for daughter Mary W.. Find a Grave, http://www.findagrave.com.'
  48. 48.0 48.1 48.2 "Find A Grave Index," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:QVK4-4JJX : 13 December 2015), Heman Chapin Buckingham, 1881; Burial, Bellfountain, Benton, Oregon, United States of America, Bellfountain Cemetery; citing record ID 35446295, Find a Grave, H. C. Buckingham died 30 April 1881. Find a Grave.
  49. Burt, Dorothy. "Bellfountain Cemetery, Benton County, Oregon." Bellfountain Cemetery, Benton Co, OR. Accessed November 25, 2017. citing history of Bellfountain Cemetery which is on land donated by Heman Buckingham. http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~orbenton/Cemeteries/Bellfountain.html
  50. Phinney, Mark, Danell Aukerman, eds. WPA Historical Records Survey, Benton County Oregon. Philomath: Benton County Historical Society, 2000. Index. 457 pages. Interview with Heman's granddaughter Florence Starr] interview by Mark Phinney of Florence Starr granddaughter of Heman [http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~orbenton/wpa/IntervS.html#Mrs. Florence B. STARR


Historic Oregon Newspapers
Pioneer Houses and Homesteads
The centennial history of Oregon, 1811-1912 Vol. 3, pg. 991

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DNA Connections
It may be possible to confirm family relationships with Heman by comparing test results with other carriers of his Y-chromosome or his mother's mitochondrial DNA. However, there are no known yDNA or mtDNA test-takers in his direct paternal or maternal line. It is likely that these autosomal DNA test-takers will share DNA with Heman:

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Images: 17
Oregon's official seal during the territorial period
Oregon's official seal during the territorial period

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Oregon City on the Willamette River

The WIllamette River from a Mountain by Paul Kane
The WIllamette River from a Mountain by Paul Kane

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Oregon My Oregon

Mount St. Helens, Columbia River, Oregon by Albert Bierstadt
Mount St. Helens, Columbia River, Oregon by Albert Bierstadt

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On 15 Dec 2017 at 15:19 GMT Valerie Willis wrote:

What a wonderful record to leave for descendants of Heman Buckingham. The great detail and many illustrations made this a very interesting profile to read.

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Heman is 14 degrees from Alexis Nelson, 15 degrees from Gregory Peck and 13 degrees from Henry VIII of England on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.