Leonard Calvert Esq

Leonard Calvert Esq (bef. 1606 - abt. 1647)

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Governor Leonard Calvert Esq
Born before in London, Englandmap
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married 23 Jun 1641 in London, Englandmap
Descendants descendants
Died about in St Marys Co, Province of Marylandmap
Profile last modified 19 Jun 2019 | Created 19 May 2010
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Contents

Caution: No Marriage to Anne Brent

It is often alleged that Calvert married Anne Brent. The fact is, Calvert's wife and mother of his children is unknown. Anne Brent died a spinster.

Biography

Leonard Calvert Esq is Notable.
1st Governor of Maryland

Summary

Leonard Calvert (1606 – June 9, 1647) was the first Governor of the Province of Maryland. He was the second son of George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, the first proprietor of the Province of Maryland. His elder brother Cecil, who inherited the colony and the title, appointed Leonard governor in his absence. [1]

1606 Birth and Parentage

Leonard Calvert (1606 – June 9, 1647) was the second son of George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, (1579-1632). [2]

Leonard Calvert was born about 1606. [3]

He was baptised 21 Nov 1610 at St. Martins in the Fields, London, Middlesex, England.[citation needed]

Leonard Calvert (1606 - 1647) was the son of George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore. On the female line, he had some blood of Plantagenet Kings of England (Plantagenet - Mortimer - Wroth - Mynne - Calvert). [4]

Occupation

Planter, Politician

Religion

Roman Catholic

Ireland

Leonard Calvert was planter, Protonotary and Keeper of Writs in Connacht and Thormond, Ireland, [3]

His father, Sir George Calvert, received the title, Baron of Baltimore, from King James I of England, and thus became 1st Lord Baltimore in February 1625. When George died on April 15, 1632, Leonard's brother, Cecilius Calvert, succeeded to the title 2nd Lord Baltimore. [4]

1625 Colonization of Newfoundland

Flag of England
Leonard Calvert Esq migrated from England to Colonial America.
Flag of Colonial America

When Leonard's father received a patent for the Province of Avalon from James I of England in 1625, he relocated his newly converted Catholic family to Newfoundland. After a few years, he declared Avalon a failure and traveled to the Colony of Virginia, where he found the climate much more suitable, but met with an unwelcome reception from the Virginians. [1]

He accompanied his father to Newfoundland, and in August 1628 he returned to England when he petitioned the king that his father might have a share in certain prizes taken from the French by the shhips Benediction and Victory. [3]

When Leonard's father George received a patent for the Province of Avalon in the island of Newfoundland (off the eastern coast of modern Canada), from James I of England in 1625, he relocated part of his Catholic family to Newfoundland.[2]

In 1628 Leonard accompanied his father, to the new colony of Newfoundland. The colony ultimately failed due to disease, extreme cold and attacks by the French and the family returned to England. After a few years, George Calvert declared Avalon a failure and traveled to the Colony of Virginia, where he found the climate much more suitable and temperate, but met with an unwelcome reception from the Virginians' government and elite.[3][2]

Maryland

Cecilius was granted the Charter of Maryland on June 20, 1632 by King Charles I of England. In 1633, Leonard sailed to Maryland with the first two ships of immigrants, and he became the colony's first governor. He served until his death on June 11, 1647. [4]

When Leonard's older brother Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore received a charter for the colony of Maryland in 1632, Leonard was appointed the colony's first governor. He landed there in the spring of 1634, arriving with 17 gentlemen and their wives and about two hundred others aboard the ships Ark and Dove and establishing the town of St. Mary's. [4]

In 1632, he returned to England where he negotiated an additional patent for the colony of Maryland from King Charles I of England. However, before the papers could be executed, George died on the 15th of April, 1632.[3][2]

On June 20, 1632, Cecil, the second Lord Baltimore executed the charter for the colony of Maryland that his father had negotiated. The charter consisted of 23 sections, but the most important conferred on Lord Baltimore and his heirs, besides the right of absolute ownership in the soil, certain powers, ecclesiastical as well as civil, resembling those possessed by the nobility of the Middle Ages. Leonard Calvert was appointed the colony's first Governor.[3][2]

1633-1634 Ark and Dove

In 1633, The Ark and the The Dove sailed from Cowes, England, and ultimately landed at St. Mary's City, then the site of a Native American village of the Yaocomico branch of the Piscataway tribe, where they built a settlement.

Two vessels, "The Ark" and "The Dove", carrying over 300 settlers, sailed from the harbour of Cowes, England, on 22 November 1633, arriving at just inside the huge harbor and bay (later to be named "Hampton Roads") at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, between Cape Charles and Cape Henry and passed off "Point Comfort" at the mouths of the intersecting James, Nansemond, and Elizabeth Rivers, in the colony of Virginia on 24 February 1634, (also later the site of the cities of Norfolk, Portsmouth and Virginia Beach on the south side and Newport News and Hampton on the northern peninsula). After exploring the area, a few weeks later they sailed up the Potomac River, north of the Virginia shoreline and the southern border of their new colony and landed on the northern shore at Blakistone Island (later renamed St. Clement's Island) on March 25, 1634, erected a large cross, gave thanks and celebrated a Roman Catholic/Christian Mass with Father Andrew White who had accompanied them (later to be celebrated as "Maryland Day", an official state and local holiday). Two days later, on the 27th March, they returned further south down-river near the point where the Potomac meets the Bay at what is now St. Mary's City, then the site of a Native American village of the Yaocomico branch of the Piscataway tribe, whom the paramount chief had moved away to accommodate the new English settlers, so as to take advantage of the trading opportunities of their more powerful technology: industries, weapons and implements, and they began the work of establishing a settlement there.[4][2]

1632 Establishment of Maryland

In 1632, he returned to England where he negotiated an additional patent for the colony of Maryland from Charles I of England. However, before the papers could be executed, George died on 15 April, 1632.[1]

On June 20, 1632, Cecil, the second Lord Baltimore executed the charter for the colony of Maryland that his father had negotiated. The charter consisted of 23 sections, but the most important conferred on Lord Baltimore and his heirs, besides the right of absolute ownership in the soil, certain powers, ecclesiastical as well as civil, resembling those possessed by the nobility of the Middle Ages. Leonard Calvert was appointed the colony's first Governor.[1]

In 1632, he was appointed as governor of the Colony of Maryland.

1634 The Ark and The Dove

Two vessels, the Ark and the Dove, carrying over 300 settlers, sailed from the harbour of Cowes, 22 November, 1633, arriving at Point Comfort at the mouths of the James, Nansemond, and Elizabeth Rivers, in Virginia, 24 February, 1634. On 27 March they landed at what is now St. Mary's, then the site of a Native American village, and they began the work of establishing a settlement there.[1]

As Governor of the Maryland Colony, Leonard Calvert was in office 1634–1647. Leonard Calvert (1606 – June 9, 1647) was the First Proprietary Governor of Maryland.[2] He was the second son of George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, (1579-1632), the first proprietary of the Province of Maryland. His elder brother Cecil, (1605-1675), who inherited the colony and the title upon the death of their father George, April 15, 1632, appointed Leonard as governor of the Colony in his absence. Leonard was named after his grandfather, the father of George who was also "Leonard Calvert" of Yorkshire[3] [2]

Following his brother's instructions, Leonard at first attempted to govern the country in an absolutist way, but in January 1635, he had to summon a colonial assembly, which became the foundation and first session of the modern General Assembly of Maryland, the third legislature to be established in the English colonies, after the House of Burgesses in the Dominion of Virginia, and the General Court in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In 1638, the Assembly forced him to govern according to the Common Laws of England, and subsequently the right to initiate legislation passed to the new General Assembly representing the common "freeholders" (or citizens).[2]

The Instructions

Leonard Calvert, lead the sailing expedition of the Ark and Dove to Maryland in 1633. Leonard's older brother, Cecil Calvert, Second Lord Baltimore, had appointed Leonard to be Maryland's first Governor. Leonard carried with him a letter containing Cecil's "Instructions" These "Instructions" described how to establish Maryland's first elected Assembly and provided a set of laws for the colony. As Governor, Leonard was in charge of Maryland's militia, sea forces, court system and finances.1 When the colonists landed in Virginia, Leonard hired Captain Henry Fleet to act as a guide. Leonard knew that Capt. Fleet would be a good guide, because Fleet had lived with Native Americans and spoke their languages.2 In February 1634, the two ships approached the Chesapeake Bay for the first time. Leonard and Captain Fleet decided to go out and meet with the head chieftains of the Native Americans before the colonists landed. The Indians called their head chieftains by the title werowance. The Werowance of the Yoacomoco Indians agreed to sell a village to the Calverts in exchange for gifts, trading guarantees and protection from their enemies, the Susquehannock and Iroquois Indians. The Yoacomoco village property purchased by Leonard became the English settlement of St. Mary's City on March 27, 1634.3 [5]

Following his brother's instructions, Leonard at first attempted to govern the country in an absolutist way, but in January 1635 he had to summon a colonial assembly. In 1638 the assembly forced him to govern according to the laws of England, and subsequently the right to initiate legislation passed to the assembly.[1]

1638 Seizure of Kent Island

In 1638, Calvert seized a trading post in Kent Island established by the Virginian William Claiborne. In 1644 Claiborne led an uprising of Maryland Protestants. In 1643 Governor Calvert went to England to discuss policies with his brother the proprietor, leaving the affairs of the colony in charge of acting Governor Brent. [1]

In 1638, Calvert seized a trading post at Kent Island established by the Virginian William Claiborne. Later in 1644, Claiborne returned and led an uprising of Maryland Protestants against the Catholic Proprietor. Earlier, in 1643 Governor Calvert had gone to England to discuss policies with his brother Cecil, the proprietor, leaving the affairs of the colony in charge of acting Governor Giles Brent, his brother-in-law. Leonard Calvert married Ann Brent, daughter of Richard Brent. Later in 1643, Ann gave birth to a son, named William Calvert and in 1644, a daughter. Leonard Calvert returned to Maryland that year of 1644 with his new wife and child, but was soon forced to flee southward to Virginia. He returned at the head of an armed force in 1646 and reasserted proprietarial rule.[2]

Leonard's years as Governor of the new colony were often difficult William Claiborne went to the King of England and claimed that the Calvert family had no right to land in Maryland. Claiborne and his fellow Kent Islanders had settled there and established a trading post with the Indians in 1631. King Charles I ruled in favor of the Calverts and this made Claiborne and other Virginias enemies of the Maryland colony. The Susquehannock Indians also raided and attacked English settlements as well as Piscataway Indian villages during the 1630s and early 1640s. [6]

He immigrated to Maryland in 1634, where he settled in St. Mary's County. [3]

He served as Governor of Maryland from 1634-47. [3]

1641 Return to England and Marriage

In 1641/2 and 1643/4 he returned to England to consult with his brother Cecelius Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore. [3]

Some popular genealogies report that "he had a family in England, but because Catholic marriages were kept secret in England we do not know for certain who his wife was."

Douglas Richardson reports that while in England "he married an unidentified wife." [3]

Many popular genealogies report that he married Anne Brent, also descended from Edward III (Plantagenet - Beaufort - Neville - Willoughby - Greville - Reed - Brent). [4] sister of Margaret and Giles Brent. No verification of this has proved possible, so such a marriage must be considered legendary. The marriage to Anne is reported on wikipedia: [2]

We do know that Leonard had a son named William and a daughter named Anne who grew up in England. [7]

The family returned to Maryland in 1644. His rule was opposed and he had to flee to Virginia. He returned with an armed force in 1646. [2]

It's not clear whether Calvert's wife ever travelled to America. His children were apparently raised in England, and emigrated independently long after his death.

Recently discovered documents for Anne Brent show that she was still a spinster in England 10 years after the birth of Leonard's children. [3]

The following "Gleanings from English Wills" by Mrs. Russel Hastings in Maryland Magazine, Vol. 22, p.307,says: "The identity of Leonard Calvert's wife (now that it is known that Margaret Brent's sister Anne was a non-juring spinster in 1651, ten years after the birth of Leonard Calvert's children is undiscovered, although she was quite possibly a member of the prolific Brent family." None of the Brents showed any interest in the children of Leonard Calvert, by will or otherwise, as it seems natural they would have done, had the children been nephew and niece. [8]

Another source also believed that Leonard Calvert married Ann Brent, daughter of Richard Brent. "Later in 1643, Ann gave birth to a son, William Calvert. Leonard Calvert returned to Maryland in 1644 with his wife and child, but was soon forced to flee to Virginia. He returned at the head of an armed force in 1646 and reasserted proprietorial rule." [9]

English Civil War

To make matters worse for Leonard, the English Civil War came to the shores of the Chesapeake Bay in the 1640s. Parliamentary supporter, Captain Richard Ingle and his men attacked and plundered St. Mary's City in 1645. Ingle captured some of Maryland's leaders. Some historians believe that Captain Ingle coordinated his attack with William Claiborne.5 Certainly, Ingle wanted to claim the Maryland colony for England's Parliament. Leonard escaped capture and controlled Maryland's armies from a headquarters in Virginia. Leonard and his militia restored Proprietary control of the Maryland colony in 1647. However, Leonard died of an illness in the summer of the same year. Before he died, Leonard wrote a will naming Margaret Brent, the executor of his estate. As executor, Margaret had to follow Leonard's command to "Take all & pay all." This meant that he told Margaret to use money from both his estate and his brother, Lord Baltimore's estate to pay the militia men who had defended Maryland. Leonard's will also named Thomas Greene as the new Governor of Maryland. [10]

1644 Return to Maryland

Leonard Calvert returned to Maryland in 1644 with his wife and child, but was soon forced to flee to Virginia. He returned at the head of an armed force in 1646 and reasserted proprietarial rule.[1]

1647 Will, Death, Burial

Leonard Calvert died in the summer of 1647. [2]

Leonard Calvert died of an illness in the summer of 1647. Before he died, he wrote a will naming Margaret Brent the executor of his estate. [11]

Leonard Calvert died of an illness in the summer of 1647. Before he died, he wrote a will naming Margaret Brent, (the sister of Giles, and a future-historically famous planter, lawyer, and female advocate for women's rights) as the executor of his estate.[2]

He wrote a will naming Margaret Brent as the executor of his estate. [12]

He died 9 June 1647 in St. Mary's, Province of Maryland[13][14]

Margaret Brent ex. below is sister to Anne Brent. I think the date of 1644 may be when the will was written and not probated. Calvert, Leonard, (nunc.)St. Mary's Co.,—– —– —–; 14th June, 1644. To James Lindsay, Richard Willen, Mrs. Temperance Pippett, of Virginia, and godson Leo. Green, personalty. Margaret Brent, execx. and residuary legatee. Test: Francis Ankell, Gov. Thomas Green. 1. 9. [15]

Leonard Calvert died in St. Mary's Co, Maryland 11 June 1647. [3]

Leonard Calvert died of an illness in the summer of 1647. Before he died, he wrote a will naming Margaret Brent the executor of his estate.[1]

The location of Leonard Calvert's grave has been lost to history, but there is an effort underway to find it. Archeologists based in the Historic St. Mary's City research complex believe that Leonard Calvert is buried somewhere in St. Inigoes, Maryland. The most likely spot has been narrowed down to somewhere on Webster Field, now a small U.S. Naval Aircraft facility located on the water on the Western side of St. Inigoes. Several archeological digs have been conducted but the grave has yet to be discovered. Members of the Calvert family in the settlement were known to be buried in lead coffins. It is not known if this is how Leonard Calvert was buried. His death, due to disease, happened suddenly and unexpectedly after a period of religious warfare had wracked the colony. Soon after his death, one of the first laws requiring religious tolerance was written and enacted in the colony, further codifying its original proprietarial mandate of religious tolerance and reestablishing peace.

Children

Leonard Calvert and his wife had one son and one daughter:

  1. [Col] William Calvert, Esq,
  2. Anne Calvert, wife of Baker Brooke, Henry Brent, and [Col] William Marsham. [3]

1890 Obelisk at St. Mary's

In 1890 the state of Maryland erected an Obelisk monument to him and his wife at St. Mary's.[1]

In 1890, the State of Maryland erected an obelisk monument to him and his wife at Historic St. Mary's City which had a historical district created to commemorate the colonial origins of the colony.[2]

Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Paragraph based on multiple sources:
    • 1. "Leonard Calvert MSA SC 3520-198". Maryland State Archives. 2003-03-07.
    http://www.msa.md.gov/megafile/msa/speccol/sc3500/sc3520/000100/000198/html/198bio.html
    • 2. Sparks, Jared (1846). The Library of American Biography: George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore. Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown. pp. 16-.
    http://books.google.com/books?id=RBsNAAAAIAAJ&pg=PR3&dq=Leonard+Calvert#v=onepage&q=Leonard%20Calvert&f=false
    • 3. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.
    • 4. Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 Leonard Calvert. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonard_Calvert
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry (2013), II, p. 64
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Fonda Carroll, Genealogy in Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio and South Carolina. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=spot54&id=I01167
  5.  : Note NI18476Leonard Calvert (ca. 1606-1647). Founding of Maryland - Educational Project for Elementary and Middle School Students. Maryland Public Television and Maryland State Archives (January-February 2003), written by Maria A. Day, MSA Archival Intern
  6.  : Note NI18476Leonard Calvert (ca. 1606-1647). Founding of Maryland - Educational Project for Elementary and Middle School Students. Maryland Public Television and Maryland State Archives (January-February 2003), written by Maria A. Day, MSA Archival Intern
  7.  : Note NI18476Leonard Calvert (ca. 1606-1647). Founding of Maryland - Educational Project for Elementary and Middle School Students. Maryland Public Television and Maryland State Archives (January-February 2003), written by Maria A. Day, MSA Archival Intern
  8. Fonda Carroll, Genealogy in Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio and South Carolina. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=spot54&id=I01167
  9. Fonda Carroll, Genealogy in Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio and South Carolina. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=spot54&id=I01167
  10.  : Note NI18476Leonard Calvert (ca. 1606-1647). Founding of Maryland - Educational Project for Elementary and Middle School Students. Maryland Public Television and Maryland State Archives (January-February 2003), written by Maria A. Day, MSA Archival Intern
  11. Fonda Carroll, Genealogy in Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio and South Carolina. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=spot54&id=I01167
  12. Will.
  13. Source: #S42 Page: 58
  14. Source: #S635 Volume XVI, 1921, page 189
  15. Fonda Carroll, Genealogy in Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio and South Carolina. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=spot54&id=I01167

See also:

Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936.

Richardson, Douglas: Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd edn. (2011), 4 vols, Vol 1, p 393.

  • Source: S42 O'Gorman, Ella Foy. Descendants of Virginia Calverts. 1947. Hathi Trust
  • Source: S508 Russell, George Ely. The Ark and the Dove Adventurers. Genealogical Publishing Company, for The Society of the Ark and the Dove, 2005. [ ] Repository: #R8
  • Source: S509 Richardson, Hester Dorsey. Side-lights on Maryland History: With Sketches of Early Maryland Families. Baltimore, Maryland: 1913. Internet Archive
  • Source: S568 Richardson, Douglas; Kimball G. Everingham, David Faris. Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Baltimore MD: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2004. [ ]
  • Source: S635 Title: Maryland Historical Magazine Publication: Name: Maryland Historical Magazine; Location: Baltimore, Maryland; Repository: #R4
  • Source: S848 Title: Ancestral File (R) Publication: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Ancestral File (R) Copyright (c) 1987, June 1998, data as of 5 January 1998 Note: Source Medium: Electronic Repository: #R18
  • Source: S266 Title: Marilyn Scribner
  • Repository: R8 Name: Kim Myers Library
  • Repository: R4 Name: Kim Myers - Digital Library
  • Repository: R18 Name: Family History Library Address: 35 N West Temple Street, salt Lake City, UT

"Leonard Calvert: Maryland's Earliest Settler"

Numbered Wikipedia Notes

[1] Maryland Historical Magazine 25: 31. 1930. Missing or empty |title= (help)

[2]Leonard Calvert MSA SC 3520-198". Maryland State Archives. 2003-03-07.

[3]Sparks, Jared (1846). The Library of American Biography: George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore. Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown. pp. 16–.

[4]Wikisource-logo.svg "Calvert". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.

Acknowledgements

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It may be possible to confirm family relationships with Leonard by comparing test results with other carriers of his Y-chromosome or his mother's mitochondrial DNA. Y-chromosome DNA test-takers in his direct paternal line on WikiTree:

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On 8 Feb 2017 at 23:42 GMT Robin Lee wrote:

Calvert-1768 and Calvert-24 appear to represent the same person because: identical data

On 9 Mar 2015 at 18:31 GMT Jack Day wrote:

I'm working on Giles Brent for the Magna Carta project, and have come upon sourced material establishing that Giles' sister Ann Brent was NOT the wife of Leonard Calvert or mother of his children. This will make things even more interesting for whoever takes on the Leonard Calvert line!

On 6 Mar 2015 at 17:12 GMT PM Eyestone wrote:

The Magna Carta project has identified a suggested line for this Gateway Ancestor and will be starting a trail to a Magna Carta surety baron.

If you're interested in getting involved or following our progress, you can do so at the Magna Carta Base Camp.


Rejected matches › Leonard Calvert (1550-abt.1611)

Leonard is 16 degrees from Cheryl Hess, 24 degrees from John Lennon and 7 degrees from Henry VIII of England on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.