Cecil Calvert

Cecilius Calvert (1605 - 1675)

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Cecilius (Cecil) "2nd Baron Baltimore" Calvert
Born in Boxley, Kent. Englandmap
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married after [location unknown]
Descendants descendants
Died in Middlesex, Englandmap
Profile last modified | Created 3 Jan 2011
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Contents

Biography

From Richardson

  • Cecil Calvert was born 8 August 1605 and baptised 2 March 1605/6 at Boxley, Kent. He was the son and heir of George Calvert by his 1st wife Anne Mynne.
  • He entered Trinity College Oxford in 1621, was admitted to Gray's Inn 8 Aug 1633. (Richardson calls him a Knight of the Shire but HoP knows nothing of this.)
  • By settlement dated 20 March 1627/8 he married Anne Arundell, daughter of Sir Thomas Arundell, 1st Lord Arundell of Wardour, by his 2nd wife, Anne Philipson.
  • They had 3 sons (George, Charles and Cecil) and 6 daughters (Georgiana, Mary, Frances, Anne, Mary (wife of Sir William Blakiston), and Elizabeth).
  • His wife Anne died 23 July 1649 and was buried at Tisbury, Wiltshire.
  • Cecil died 30 Nov 1675 and was buried 7 Dec 1675 at St Giles-in-the-Fields. His will dated 22 and 28 Nov 1675 was proved 3 Feb 1675/6.

Titles

Cecilius Calvert, Second Baron Baltimore (August 8, 1605 – November 30, 1675), was an English peer who was the first Proprietor and Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland, and ninth Proprietary Governor of the Colony of Newfoundland and the colony of Avalon (in the southeast). His title was "Cecilius Calvert, Second Baron Baltimore, First Lord Proprietary, Earl - Palatine of the Provinces of Maryland and Avalon in America". He received the proprietorship after the death of his father, George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, (April 15, 1632), for whom it was intended. "Cecil Calvert" (as he was known) established and managed the Province of Maryland from his home "Kiplin Hall" in North Yorkshire, England; as a Roman Catholic, he continued the legacy of his father by promoting religious tolerance in the colony.

Maryland became known as a haven for Catholics in the New World, particularly important at a time of religious persecution in England.

Calvert governed Maryland for forty-two years.[2] He also continued to be Lord Proprietor and Governor of Newfoundland for the colony of Avalon. He died in England on November 30, 1675, aged 70 years. He is buried at St. Giles-in-the-Fields Church, London, UK.[3][4] The exact location of his grave on church grounds is unknown, church records state he is buried there.[5] A plaque commemorating Cecilius Calvert was placed in St. Giles in 1996 by the Governor of Maryland.

Christening: 2 Mar 1604/05, Bexley, Kent, England

Early life and education

Cecilius Calvert, whose first name was sometimes spelled "Cæcilius", or "Caecilius", was born on August 8, 1605, in Kent, England to George Calvert, the First Lord Baltimore and Anne Mynne (or Mayne).[6] He was generally known as Cecil Calvert, and was the first of several sons of the couple. At the time, his father was under pressure for conformity, and all ten children were baptized as Christians in the Anglican (Protestant) tradition.[7]

Calvert entered Trinity College at the University of Oxford in 1621. His mother Anne Mynne (or Mayne) died the following year.[7] His father George Calvert, First Lord Baltimore converted to Roman Catholicism in 1625, and it is likely that his children followed him; at least his sons did.

On August 8, 1633, Calvert was admitted to Gray's Inn as a barrister.[6]

Settlement of the Maryland colony

Maryland Charter

Calvert received a Charter from Charles I of England for the new colony of Maryland, to be named for the Queen Consort Henrietta Maria (wife of King Charles). This was shortly after the death of his father, the First Baron Baltimore, who had long sought the charter to found a colony in the mid-Atlantic area to serve as a refuge for English Catholics. The "Original Grant" would have included the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay as far south as the Potomac River and the entirety of the eastern shore (future "Delmarva" peninsula). When the Crown realized that settlers from Virginia had already crossed the Bay to begin settling the southern tip of their eastern shore, the grant was revised to include the eastern shore only as far south as a line drawn east from the mouth of the Potomac River (including the future State of Delaware). Once that alteration was made, the final charter was confirmed on June 20, 1632.

Baltimore's fee for the Charter, which was legally a rental of the land from the King, was one-fifth of all gold and silver found and the delivery of two Native American arrows to the royal castle at Windsor every Easter.[8] The Charter established Maryland as a palatinate, giving Baltimore and his descendants rights nearly equal to those of an independent state, including the rights to wage war, collect taxes, and establish a colonial nobility.[9] In questions of interpretation of rights, the Charter would be interpreted in favor of the proprietor.[10] Supporters in England of the Virginia colony opposed the Charter, as they had little interest in having a competing colony to the north.[11] Rather than going to the colony himself, Baltimore stayed behind in England to deal with the political threat and sent his next younger brother Leonard in his stead. He never traveled to Maryland.[11]

While the expedition was being prepared, Baltimore was busy in England defending the 1632 Charter from former members of the Virginia Company. They were trying to regain their original Charter, including the entirety of the new Maryland colony, which had previously been included within the domains described as a part of Virginia.[12] They had informally tried to thwart the founding of another colony for years, but their first formal complaint was lodged with the "Lords of Foreign Plantations" (Lords of Trade and Plantations) in July 1633.[12] The complaint claimed that Maryland had not truly been unsettled, as stated in its charter, because William Claiborne had previously run a trading station on Kent Island in the middle of Chesapeake Bay off the eastern shore.[12] It also claimed that the Charter was so broad as to constitute a violation of the liberties of the colony's subjects. At this point there were few Marylanders yet in residence.[13]

The first expedition consisted of two ships that had formerly belonged to Baltimore's father George, "Ark" and "Dove".[14] They departed from Gravesend in Kent with 128 settlers on board. They were chased and forced to return by the British Royal Navy so that the settlers would take an oath of allegiance to the King as required by law. They then sailed in October 1632, for the Isle of Wight to pick up more settlers.[14] There, two Jesuit priests (including Father Andrew White) and nearly 200 more settlers boarded before the ships set out across the Atlantic Ocean.[15]

Baltimore sent detailed instructions for the governance of the colony. He directed his brother to seek information about those who had tried to thwart the colony and to contact William Claiborne to determine his intentions for the trading station on Kent Island.[16] He also emphasized the importance of religious toleration among the colonists, who numbered nearly equally Catholic and Protestant.[16] With these last instructions, the expedition crossed the Atlantic and sailed through the capes of Charles and Henry into the large harbor and lower bay called Hampton Roads at the mouths of the Chesapeake Bay and the James River. After meeting with the Virginians at their colony and capital of Jamestown, they continued up the Bay to the Potomac River, then further upstream and landed on March 25, 1634, at Blakistone Island (later called St. Clement's Island). There they erected a cross and celebrated their first Mass with Father White. Several days later, they returned downstream and founded the first settlement at St. Mary's City (in the future St. Mary's County), on March 27, 1634, on land purchased from the native Yaocomico tribe, a branch of the Piscataway Indians.[17] From England, Baltimore tried to manage the political relations with the Crown and other parts of government. Claiborne, the trader on Kent Island, resisted the new settlement and conducted some naval skirmishes against it.[18]

Lord Baltimore attempted to stay closely involved in the governance of the colony, though he never visited it. During his long tenure, he governed through deputies: the first was his younger brother Leonard Calvert (1606–1647), [19] and the last was his only son Charles.

Crisis during the English civil war

The enterprise took place in the context of serious unrest in England.[11] In 1629, King Charles I had dissolved Parliament and governed for the next eleven years without consultation from any representative body.[11] The Church of England, led by the Star Chamber, intensified its campaign against both Puritans and Catholics.[11] The former left England for the Netherlands and then a colony in New England colony. Catholics began to see Maryland as their sole English-speaking place of refuge.[11]

Lord Baltimore, a Catholic, struggled to maintain possession of Maryland during the English Civil War by trying to convince Parliament of his loyalty; he appointed a Protestant, William Stone, as his governor. It's accepted he did this exclusively to maintain possession of the colony during the civil war, as his loyalties were with King Charles.

Religious toleration

The Maryland Toleration Act, passed in 1649.

In 1649, Maryland passed the Maryland Toleration Act, also known as the "Act Concerning Religion", mandating religious tolerance for Trinitarian Christians only (those who profess faith in the "Holy Trinity" - Father, Son and Holy Spirit, excluding Nontrinitarian faiths). Passed on September 21, 1649, by the General Assembly of the Maryland colony, it was the first law establishing religious tolerance in the British North American colonies. The Calvert family sought enactment of the law to protect Catholic settlers and Nonconformist Protestants who did not conform to the established state Church of England of Britain and her colonies.

Baltimore's colony in Newfoundland

Lord Baltimore's family also had title to Ferryland and the Province of Avalon in Newfoundland. Sir George Calvert, (1579-1632), the First Lord Baltimore, administered the colony between 1629 and 1632 when he left for the Colony of Virginia and later visited the northern reaches along the Chesapeake Bay (which included the future Maryland). In 1637 however, Sir David Kirke acquired a charter giving Cecil, the Second Lord Baltimore, title to the entire island of Newfoundland superseding the charter granted to his father George, the First Baron. Baltimore fought against the new Charter. Although in 1661, he gained official recognition of the old Charter of Avalon, he never attempted to retake the Avalon colony.

Marriage

He married Anne Arundell, daughter of the 1st Baron Arundell of Wardour, in 1627 or 1628. They had nine children. Of the nine, only three, including Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore, survived to adulthood. Later, her name became the inspiration for the naming of one of the earliest counties to be "erected" (founded) as "Anne Arundel County", with a quaint old English spelling of her name "Ann Arundell" and that of the old county which is maintained in the title of the local historical society, centered in Glen Burnie and Linthicum [1]

Death & Burial

  • Cecilius Calvert died in Middlesex, England on November 30, 1675.[1] He was succeeded to the Baronetcy of Baltimore and to his other titles by his son and heir, Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore.
  • Burial: 7 Dec 1675, Stgilesintheflds, London, Middlesex, England

Legacy & Honors

Maryland

In 1904, the arms were adopted as the official state Flag of Maryland. It is the only US state flag to be based on English heraldry.[20][21] Numerous place names honor the Barons Baltimore, including the counties of Baltimore, Calvert, Cecil, Charles, and Frederick.

Cities which include variations of the Calvert and Lord Baltimore's name

  • Baltimore City (independent city = county equivalent)
  • Leonardtown
  • St. Leonard
  • Calvert Cliffs

Calvert County and Cecil County in Maryland are both named in his honor. Anne Arundel County is named in honor of his wife. (Anne Arundel's original spelling of her name is preserved in the name of the county's heritage organization - "Ann Arundell County Historical Society")[1]

Street names: Cecil Avenue, Calvert Street, Charles Street in Baltimore, Calvert Street in Brooklyn neighborhood of South Baltimore, Calvert Street in Washington, DC, Baltimore Street in Cumberland, Maryland, Baltimore Street in La Plata, Maryland, Baltimore-Annapolis Boulevard (Maryland Route 648), Baltimore–Washington Parkway

A 1908 statue of Cecilius Calvert stands on the steps at the west entrance of the Circuit Courthouse of Baltimore City (built 1896-1900 - renamed the Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr. Courthouse in the 1980s) facing Saint Paul Street and a small Court Plaza with a fountain. It is the site of annual "Maryland Day" (March 25) ceremonies which continue inside the elaborate Lobby and ceremonial courtrooms.

Harford County is named for Henry Harford, the illegitimate son of Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore. Although precluded by his birth status from inheriting the peerage, he inherited the Lord Proprietorship, only to lose it later during the American Revolution.

On the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland is the settlement of Calvert. Baltimore School is in nearby Ferryland.

Maryland Flag and Great Seal

The Flag of Maryland uses the arms of the 2nd Baron with the Calvert (father's family) black and gold paly (6 vertical bars), with a bend dexter counterchanged, and the Crossland (mother's family) red and white bottony (tre-foiled) counterchanged cross. The flag first flew October 11, 1880, in Baltimore by the newly reorganized Maryland National Guard (state militia) at a parade marking the 150th anniversary of the founding of Baltimore Town (1729-1730). It also flew October 25, 1888, at Gettysburg Battlefield for ceremonies dedicating monuments to the Maryland regiments of the Army of the Potomac and of the Confederate States Army. During the Civil War, the black and gold chevrons were used as a symbol on uniforms and flags by the Northern (Union) Maryland soldiers and units and the bottonee cross from the Crosslands by the Southern (Confederate) regiments from Maryland. The later reunification of the two squares of the colonial seal and proprietary family's coat-of-arms in the increased use of a "Maryland Flag" in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries, symbolized the post-war reconciliation of the two sides of the bitterly divided border state. Officially, it was adopted as the State flag in 1904.[22]

The Great Seal of Maryland, which was stolen in 1645, was replaced by a similar seal by Cecil. The seal features the Calvert arms and motto which is still used in the Government of Maryland.

Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore (8 August 1605 – 30 November 1675), was the first Proprietor of the Province of Maryland, ninth Proprietary Governor of the Colony of Newfoundland and second of the colony of Province of Avalon to its southeast. His title was "Cecil Calvert, Second Baron Baltimore, First Lord Proprietary, Earl Palatine of the Provinces of Maryland and Avalon in America". He received the proprietorship after the death of his father, George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, (1579 – 15 April 1632), for whom it had been intended. Cecil Calvert established and managed the Province of Maryland from his home, Kiplin Hall, in North Yorkshire, England. As an English Roman Catholic, he continued the legacy of his father by promoting religious tolerance in the colony.

Maryland became a haven for Catholics in the New World, particularly important at a time of religious persecution in England. Calvert governed Maryland for forty-two years.[2] He also continued to be Lord Proprietor and Governor of Newfoundland for the Province of Avalon. He died in England on 30 November 1675, aged 70 years. Parish records state that he is buried at St. Giles-in-the-Fields Church, London, UK,[3][4] though the exact location of his grave is unknown.[5] A plaque commemorating Cecil Calvert was placed in St. Giles in 1996 by the Governor of Maryland. However, genealogists for Kiplin Hall state, "A number of the early Calverts were buried at St Giles in the Fields, Charing Cross Road, London. We cannot yet be certain whether Cecil is one of them."[6] This is possibly due to poor record keeping of Catholic burials[7] or numerous outbreaks of disease that overwhelmed burial staff and led to confusion in parish registers .[8]

Early life and education[edit] Cecil Calvert was born on 8 August 1605, in Kent, England to George Calvert, the First Lord Baltimore and Anne Mynne (or Mayne).[9] He was the first of several sons of the couple. At the time, his father was under pressure for conformity, and all ten children were baptised as Christians in the Anglican (Protestant) tradition.[10]

Calvert entered Trinity College at the University of Oxford in 1621. His mother Anne Mynne (or Mayne) died the following year.[10] His father George Calvert, First Lord Baltimore converted to Roman Catholicism in 1625, and it is likely that his children followed him; at least his sons did.

In 1628 Cecil accompanied his father, along with most of his siblings and his stepmother, to the new colony of Newfoundland. The colony failed due to disease, extreme cold and attacks by the French and the family returned to England.

On 8 August 1633, Calvert was admitted to Gray's Inn as a barrister.[9]

Settlement of the Maryland colony[edit] Maryland Charter[edit] Calvert received a Charter from King Charles I for the new colony of Maryland, to be named for the Queen Consort Henrietta Maria (wife of King Charles I). This was shortly after the death of his father, the First Baron Baltimore, who had long sought the charter to found a colony in the mid-Atlantic area to serve as a refuge for English Roman Catholics. The original grant would have included the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay as far south as the Potomac River and the entirety of the eastern shore (future "Delmarva" peninsula). When the Crown realised that settlers from Virginia had already crossed the bay to begin settling the southern tip of their eastern shore, the grant was revised to include the eastern shore only as far south as a line drawn east from the mouth of the Potomac River (including the future State of Delaware). Once that alteration was made, the final charter was confirmed on 20 June 1632. This charter would be heavily contested by Calvert's heirs and the Penn family in the Penn–Calvert Boundary Dispute.

Baltimore's fee for the Charter, which was legally a rental of the land from the King, was one-fifth of all gold and silver found and the delivery of two Native American arrows to the royal castle at Windsor every Easter.[11] The Charter established Maryland as a palatinate, giving Baltimore and his descendants rights nearly equal to those of an independent state, including the rights to wage war, collect taxes and establish a colonial nobility.[12] In questions of interpretation of rights, the Charter would be interpreted in favour of the proprietor.[13] Supporters in England of the Virginia colony opposed the Charter, as they had little interest in having a competing colony to the north.[14] Rather than going to the colony himself, Baltimore stayed behind in England to deal with the political threat and sent his next younger brother Leonard in his stead. He never travelled to Maryland.[14]

While the expedition was being prepared, Baltimore was busy in England defending the 1632 Charter from former members of the Virginia Company. They were trying to regain their original Charter, including the entirety of the new Maryland colony, which had previously been included within the domains described as a part of Virginia.[15] They had informally tried to thwart the founding of another colony for years, but their first formal complaint was lodged with the "Lords of Foreign Plantations" (Lords of Trade and Plantations) in July 1633.[15] The complaint claimed that Maryland had not truly been unsettled, as stated in its charter, because William Claiborne had previously run a trading station on Kent Island in the middle of the Chesapeake Bay off the eastern shore.[15] It also claimed that the Charter was so broad as to constitute a violation of the liberties of the colony's subjects. At this point there were few Marylanders yet in residence.[16]

"Ark" and "Dove"[edit]

Modern reconstruction of "Dove", one of the two ships that carried settlers to plant Lord Baltimore's first settlement in Maryland in 1634.

Leonard Calvert, Lord Baltimore's younger brother and the first governor of the Maryland colony. The first expedition consisted of two ships that had formerly belonged to Baltimore's father George, "Ark" and "Dove".[17] They departed from Gravesend in Kent with 128 settlers on board. They were chased and forced to return by the British Royal Navy so that the settlers would take an oath of allegiance to the King as required by law. They then sailed in October 1632 for the Isle of Wight to pick up more settlers.[17] There, two Jesuit priests (including Father Andrew White) and nearly 200 more settlers boarded before the ships set out across the Atlantic Ocean.[18]

Baltimore sent detailed instructions for the governance of the colony. He directed his brother to seek information about those who had tried to thwart the colony and to contact William Claiborne to determine his intentions for the trading station on Kent Island.[19] He also emphasised the importance of religious toleration among the colonists, who numbered nearly equally Catholic and Protestant.[19] With these last instructions, the expedition crossed the Atlantic and sailed through Cape Charles (headland) and Cape Henry into the large harbour and lower bay called Hampton Roads at the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay and the mouth of the James River. After meeting with the Virginians at their colony and capital of Jamestown, they continued up the Bay to the Potomac River, then further upstream and landed on 25 March 1634 at Blakistone Island (later called St. Clement's Island). There they erected a cross and celebrated their first Mass with Father White. Several days later, they returned downstream and founded the first settlement at St. Mary's City (in the future St. Mary's County), on 27 March 1634, on land purchased from the native Yaocomico tribe, a branch of the Piscataway Indians.[20] From England, Baltimore tried to manage the political relations with the Crown and other parts of government. Claiborne, the trader on Kent Island, resisted the new settlement and conducted some naval skirmishes against it.[21]

Calvert attempted to stay closely involved in the governance of the colony, though he never visited it. During his long tenure, he governed through deputies: the first was his younger brother Leonard Calvert (1606–1647),[22] and the last was his only son Charles.

Crisis before and during the English Civil War[edit] Main article: Battle of the Severn The enterprise took place in the context of serious unrest in England.[14] In 1629, King Charles I had dissolved Parliament and governed for the next eleven years without consultation from any representative body.[14] William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury and his Star Chamber campaigned against both Puritans and Catholics.[14] As a result, the Puritans and Separatists began to emigrate to New England in Plymouth Colony and Massachusetts Bay Colony. Catholics began to see Maryland as a possible English-speaking place of refuge.[14]

Lord Baltimore, a Catholic, struggled to maintain possession of Maryland during the English Civil War by trying to convince Parliament of his loyalty; he appointed a Protestant, William Stone, as his governor. It is accepted he did this exclusively to maintain possession of the colony during the civil war, as his loyalties were with King Charles.

Religious toleration[edit]

Maryland Toleration Act, passed in 1649. In 1649, Maryland passed the Maryland Toleration Act, also known as the "Act Concerning Religion", mandating religious tolerance for Trinitarian Christians only (those who profess faith in the "Holy Trinity" – Father, Son and Holy Spirit, excluding Nontrinitarian faiths). Passed on 21 September 1649, by the General Assembly of the Maryland colony, it was the first law establishing religious tolerance in the British North American colonies. The Calvert family sought enactment of the law to protect Catholic settlers and Nonconformist Protestants who did not conform to the established state Church of England.

Baltimore's colony in Newfoundland[edit] [icon] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2008) Lord Baltimore's family also had title to Ferryland and the Province of Avalon in Newfoundland. Sir George Calvert, (1579–1632), the First Lord Baltimore, administered the colony between 1629 and 1632 when he left for the Colony of Virginia and later visited the northern reaches along the Chesapeake Bay (which included the future Maryland). In 1637, however, Sir David Kirke acquired a charter giving Cecil, the Second Lord Baltimore, title to the entire island of Newfoundland, superseding the charter granted to his father George, the First Baron. Baltimore fought against the new Charter. Although in 1661, he gained official recognition of the old Charter of Avalon, he never attempted to retake the Avalon colony.


Cecil's son and heir, Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore. Marriage and family[edit] He married the Hon. Anne Arundell, daughter of the 1st Baron Arundell of Wardour, in 1627 or 1628. They had nine children. Of the nine, only three, including Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore, survived to adulthood. Later, her name became the inspiration for the naming of one of the earliest counties to be "erected" (founded) as "Anne Arundel County".[1]

Cecil Calvert died in Middlesex, England on 30 November 1675.[1] He was succeeded by his son and heir, Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore.

Sources


  • Wikipedia
  • Richardson, Douglas: Royal Ancestry, 1st edn. (2013), 5 vols, Volume 2, page 64
  • Richardson, Douglas: Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd edn. (2011), 4 vols, Volume 1, page 393-4.
  • Browning, CH: Americans of Royal Descent, page 381, credits Cecil with a daughter Maria who marries (1) Edward Somerset (uncle of Mary Joanna Somerset) (2) Robert Lowther Smith (brother of Richard Smith jr, presumably the 2nd husband of Mary Joanna Somerset). I can't identify either of these alleged husbands.

Acknowledgements

Magna Carta Project

Magna Carta trail
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Cecil Calvert has Magna Carta connections.
This profile had displayed the Magna Carta project's "Trail Pending" project box but does not include any information about the trail's status (see this page for samples of information to include in this section), so the project box was changed to the project's maintenance sticker and the following maintenance categories added:
  • Needs Development: An explanation of the Magna Carta trail and its status needs to be added. ~ Noland-165 13:48, 16 April 2018 (UTC)
  • Needs Re-review: If the trail has been developed, the profiles in the trail need re-review prior to being posted as "Ready for Review" at Base Camp. ~ Noland-165 13:48, 16 April 2018 (UTC)


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Images: 3
Cecilius Calvert 2nd Lord Baltimore
Cecilius Calvert 2nd Lord Baltimore

Calvert Coat of Arms
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2nd Lord Baltimore
2nd Lord Baltimore

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On 5 Feb 2018 at 19:06 GMT Ken Broughton wrote:

Calvert-91 and Calvert-2183 appear to represent the same person because: Duplicates.



Cecil is 20 degrees from Robin Helstrom, 20 degrees from Katy Jurado and 12 degrees from Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.

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