Archibald Campbell, the 5th Earl of Argyll was a Scottish nobleman and influential figure in 16th century Scottish politics, during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots and the early part of that of James VI. He was considered a man of great prudence. He had no legitimate surviving sons and he died in 1573, succeeded by his brother.
1558 - Argyll succeeded his father in the earldom. His inheritance made him one of the most powerful magnates in the kingdom. A devout Protestant, he soon became one of the leaders of the Lords of the Congregation along with his brother-in-law, Lord James.
1559 - Argyll went to France to meet with Queen Anne of France to promote interest in the Protestant religion those efforts were rebuffed.
1560 - The Earl of Argyll, in his role as Campbell clan chief, was also heavily involved in the politics of Ulster during the 1560s. Although he initially hoped for an alliance with the English to secure his claims on land possessed by the O'Donnell and Sorley Boy MacDonnell families against the encroachment of the O'Neill, English unwillingness to work with him led him to orchestrate a marriage alliance among the three feuding clans of Ulster, which would ultimately have major effects on Irish history with the eruption of the Hugh O'Neill rebellion in the 1590s. 
1561 - With the young queen Mary's return to Scotland, Argyll and Stewart, now Earl of Moray, both retained their leading role in the kingdom, continuing to pursue an anglophilic policy. Their pre-eminence came to an end in 1565, with the queen's marriage Lord Darnley.
1566-1567 - Shifts in Argyll's policies remained subtle, and he remained close to his old friend Moray. Argyll was tied to the assassinations of both David Rizzio in 1566 and of the King himself in 1567. He was however, horrified by the Queen's marriage to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell. He joined with Moray and other Protestant leaders in fighting Mary and Bothwell in that year, leading to the capture of the queen at Carberry Hill, but broke with his former allies over the question of deposing the queen.
1568 - With Mary's escape from prison, the Earl of Argyll became the leader of the Queen's Party, and led Mary's army in the defeat at Langside in that year. He continued to champion the queen's cause following her flight to England.
1571 (Aug 1) - The Earl of Argyle, Robert Lord Boyd, and some other nobles, lately friends of the queen, were now brought over to the king's side, after meetings and discussions with the Regent Lennox. This reconciliation and King's party was a means of restoring peace and lessening English meddling in Scottish affairs.
1572 - He became Lord High Chancellor of Scotland. 
Family and Death
Archibald is the son of Archibald Campbell, the 4th Earl of Argyll. Archibald was educated under the direction of Mr John Douglas, his father's domestic chaplain, and the first Protestant Archbishop of St Andrews, and distinguished himself as one of the most able among the Lords of the Congregation.
The earl first married, Lady Jean Stewart, in April 1554, the natural (illegitimate) daughter of James V by Elizabeth Bethune, daughter of John, Lord Carmichael.  They did not live on very happy terms, as he had many mistresses and a number of illegitimate chidlren and they lived apart for many years. He eventually divorced her on the grounds of desertion. The decree of divorce was granted on 22nd June 1573.
He died a month later on 12th September 1573. He was around 43 years old at his death. As he had no legitimate male children, his estate and titles descended to his brother, Sir Colin Campbell of Buchan