Philip II (Capet) de France

Philippe Auguste (Capet) de France (1165 - 1223)

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Philippe Auguste (Philip II) "Roi de France" de France formerly Capet
Born in Gonesse, Ile-de-France, Francemap
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
Husband of — married (to ) [location unknown]
Husband of — married [location unknown]
Descendants descendants
Died in Mantes, Ile-de-France, Francemap
Profile last modified | Created 19 May 2010 | Last significant change: 1 Dec 2018
23:54: Greg Lavoie edited the Birth Place and Death Place for Philip II (Capet) de France. (Removing Val-d'Oise and Yvelines in birth and death places-those departments were created in the 1960s) [Thank Greg for this | 1 thank-you received]
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Categories: Third Crusade | House of Capet.

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Wikipedia: Philip II of France

Biography [1]

King of France, born 22 or 25 August, 1165; died at Mantes, 14 July, 1223, son of Louis VII and Alix de Champagne.

He was saved from a serious illness after a pilgrimage made by his father to the tomb of Thomas à Becket; he succeeded to the throne 18 September, 1180. His marriage with Isabella of Hainault, niece of the Count of Flanders, the conflicts which he afterwards sustained against the latter, and the deaths of the Countess (1182) and Count of Flanders (1185), increased the royal power in the north of France. His strife with Henry II of England in concert with the sons of that monarch, Henry, Richard, and John, resulted in 1189 in the Treaty of Azay-sur-Cher, which enhanced the royal power in the centre of France. The struggle with the Plantagenets was the ruling idea of Philip II's whole policy. Richard Cæur de Lion having become King of England, 6 July, 1189, was at first on amicable terms with Philip. Together they undertook the Third Crusade, but quarreled in Palestine, and on his return Philip II accused Richard of having attempted to poison him. As Richard had supported in Sicily the claims of Tancred of Lecce against those of the Emperor Henry VI, the latter resolved to be avenged. Richard, having been taken captive on his return from the Crusade by the Duke of Austria, was delivered to Henry VI, who held him prisoner. Philip II sent William, Archbishop of Reims, to Henry VI to request that Richard should remain the captive of Germany or that he should be delivered to Philip as his prisoner. Without loss of time Philip reached an agreement with John Lackland, Richard's brother. Normandy was delivered up by a secret treaty and John acknowledged himself Philip's vassal. But, when in February, 1194, Richard was set free by Henry VI, John Lackland became reconciled with him and endless conflict followed between Richard and Philip. On 13 January, 1199, Innocent III imposed on them a truce of five years. Shortly after this Richard died. Subsequently Philip defended against John, Richard's successor, the claims of the young Arthur of Brittany, and then those of Hugh de Lusignan, Count of La Marche, whose betrothed had been abducted by John. The war between Philip and John, interrupted by the truces imposed by the papal legates, became a national war; and in 1206 John lost his possessions in central France. Philip was sometimes displeased with the pontifical intervention between France and the Plantagenets, but the prestige of Innocent III forced him to accept it. Protracted difficulties took place between him and the pope owing to the tenacity with which Innocent III compelled respect for the indissolubility of even royal marriages.

In 1190 Philip lost his wife, Isabella of Hainault, whom he had married in order to inherit Artois, and in 1193 he married Ingeburga, sister of Canute VI, King of Denmark. As he immediately desired to repudiate her, an assembly of complaisant barons and bishops pronounced the divorce, but Ingeburga appealed to Rome. Despite the remonstrances of Celestine III, Philip, having imprisoned Ingeburga, married Agnes de Méran, daughter of a Bavarian nobleman. Innocent III, recently elected, called upon him to repudiate Agnes and take back Ingeburga, and on the king's refusal the legate, Peter of Capua, placed the kingdom under an interdict (1198). Most of the bishops refused to publish the sentence. The Bishops of Paris and Senlis, who published it, were punished by having their goods confiscated. At the end of nine months Philip appeared to yield; he feigned reconciliation with Ingeburga, first before the legate, Octavian, and then before the Council of Soissons (May, 1201), but he did not dismiss Agnes de Méran. She died in August, 1201, and Innocent III consented to legitimize the two children she had borne the king, but Philip persisted that Rome should pronounce his divorce from Ingeburga, whom he held prisoner at Etampes. Rome refused and Philip dismissed the papal legate (1209). In 1210 he thought of marrying a princess of Thuringia, and in 1212 renewed his importunities for the divorce with the legate, Robert de Courçon. Then, in 1213, having need of the aid of the pope and the King of Denmark, he suddenly restored Ingeburga to her station as queen.

Another question which at first caused discord between Philip II and Innocent III, and regarding which they had later a common policy, was the question of Germany. Otto of Brunswick, who was Innocent III's candidate for the dignity of emperor, was the nephew of Richard and John Lackland. This was sufficient to cause Philip to interfere in favour of Philip of Suabia. They formed an alliance in June, 1198, and when Philip of Suabia was assassinated in 1208 Philip put forward the candidacy of Henry of Brabant. However, the whole of Germany rallied to Otto of Brunswick, who became emperor as Otto IV, and in 1209 Philip feared that the new emperor would invade France. But Otto IV quarrelled with Innocent III and was excommunicated and the pope by an unexpected move called upon Philip for subsidies and troops to aid him against Otto. They agreed to proclaim as emperor Frederick of Hohenstaufen, the future Frederick II, Philip giving Frederick 20,000 "marcs" to defray the cost of his election (November, 1212). Thus was inaugurated the policy by which France meddled in the affairs of Germany and for the first time the French king claimed, like the pope, to have a voice in the imperial election.

The accord established between Innocent and Philip with regard to the affairs of Germany subsequently extended to those of England. Throughout his reign Philip dreamed of a landing in England. As early as 1209 he had negotiated with the English barons who were hostile to John Lackland, and in 1212 with the Irish and the Welsh. When John lackland subjected to cruel persecution the English bishops who, in spite of him, recognized Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury. Innocent III in 1212 placed England under interdict, and the legate, Pandulphus, declared that John Lackland had forfeited his throne. Then Philip, who received at his court all the exiles from England, consented to go to England in the name of Innocent III to take away the crown from John Lackland. It was to be given to his son, the future Louis VIII. On 22 May, 1213, the French expedition was to embark at Gravelines, when it was learned that John Lackland had become reconciled with Rome, and some months later he became a vassal of the pope. Thus failed, on the eve of its realization, the project of the French invasion of England. But the legate of Innocent III induced Philip to punish Ferrand, Count of Flanders, who was the ally of all the enemies of the king. At the battle of Bouvines (27 July, 1214) Ferrand, who supported Otto IV, was taken prisoner. This battle is regarded as the first French national victory. Philip II, asserting that he had on both sides two great and terrible lions, Otto and John, excused himself from taking part in the Crusade against the Albigenses. He permitted his son Louis to make two expeditions into Languedoc to support Simon de Montfort in 1215, and Amaury de Montfort in 1219, and again in 1222 he sent Amaury de Montfort two hundred knights and ten thousand foot soldiers under the Archbishop of Bourges and the Count of La Marche. He foresaw that the French monarchy would profit by the defeat of the Albigenses.

Philip's reign was characterized by a gigantic advance of the French monarchy. Before his time the King of France reigned only over the Ile de France and Berri, and had no communication with the sea. To this patrimony Philip II added Artois, Amienois, Valois, Vernandois, a large portion of Beauvaisis, Normandy, Maine, Anjou, Touraine, and a part of Poitou and Saintonge. His bailiffs and seneschals established the royal power firmly in those countries. Paris became a fortified city and attracted to its university students from different countries. Thanks to the possession of Dieppe, Rouen, and certain parts of Saintonge, the French monarchy became a maritime and commercial power, and Philip invited foreign merchants to France. Flanders, Ponthieu, and Auvergne became subject fiefs, supervised by agents of the king. He exercised a sort of protectorate over Champagne and Burgundy. Brittany was in the hands of Pierre de Dreux, a Capetian of the younger branch. "History", writes M. Luchaire, "does not present so many, such rapid, and such complete changes in the fortune of a State".

Philip Augustus did not interfere in episcopal elections. In Normandy, where the Plantagenets had assumed the custom of directly nominating the bishops, he did not follow their example. Guillaume Le Breton, in his poem the "Philippide", makes him say: "I leave to the men of God the things that pertain to the service of God." He favoured the emancipation of communes, desiring to be liked by the middle classes of the districts he annexed. He often exacted a tax in exchange for the communal charter. But he did not allow the communes to infringe on the property of clerics or the episcopal right of jurisdiction. At Noyen he intervened formally in behalf of the bishop, who was threatened by the commune. He undertook a campaign in defence of the bishops and abbots against certain feudal lords whom he himself desired to humiliate or weaken. In 1180, before he was king, he undertook an expedition into Berri to punish the Lord of Charenton, the enemy of the monks, and into Burgundy where the Count of Chalon and the Lord of Beaujeu were persecuting the Church. In 1186, on the complaint of the monks, he took possession of Chatillon-sur-Seine, in the Duchy of Burgundy, and forced the duke to repair the wrongs he had committed against the Church. In 1210 he sent troops to protect the Bishop of Clermont, who was threatened by the Count of Auvergne.

But on the other hand, in virtue of the preponderance which he wished royalty to have over feudalism, he exacted of the bishops and abbots the performance of all their feudal duties, including military service; although for certain territories he was the vassal of the bishops of Picardy, he refused to pay them homage. Moreover, he declared with regard to Manasses, bishop of Orléans, that the royal court was entitled to judge at the trials of bishops, and he made common cause with lay feudalism in the endless discussions regarding the province of ecclesiastical tribunals, which at the beginning of the thirteenth century were disposed to extend their jurisdiction. An ordinance issued about 1205 at the instance of the king, executed in Normandy and perhaps elsewhere, stipulated that in certain cases lay judges might arrest and try guilty clerics, that the right of asylum of religious buildings should be limited, that the Church might not excommunicate those who did business on Sunday or held intercourse with Jews, and that a citizen having several children should not give more than half of his estate to that one of his sons who was a cleric. Finally he imposed on the clergy heavy financial exactions. He was the first king who endeavoured to compel clerics to pay the king a tenth of their income. In 1188 the archdeacon Peter of Blois defeated this claim, but in 1215 and 1218 Philip renewed it, and by degrees the resistance of the clergy gave way. Philip, however, was pious in his own way, and in the advice which St. Louis gave to his son he said that Philip, because of "God's goodness and mercy would rather lose his throne than dispute with the servants of Holy Church". Thus the reputation left by Philip II was quite different from that of Philip IV, or Frederick II of Germany. He never carried out towards the Church a policy of trickery or petty vexations, on the contrary he regarded it as his collaborator in the foundation of French unity.

Birth

Birth: 21 AUG 1165 Gonesse, Val-d'Oise, Ile-de-France, France
Christening: Paris, Seine, France

Marriages and Children

Isabella of Hainault

In 1190 Philip lost his wife, Isabella of Hainault, whom he had married in order to inherit Artois,

Issue by Isabella of Hainaut [2]

  1. Louis (3 September 1187 – 8 November 1226), King of France as Louis VIII (1223-1226); married Blanche of Castile and had issue.
  2. Robert (15 March 1190 – 18 March 1190)
  3. Philip (15 March 1190 – 18 March 1190)

Ingeburga, sister of Canute VI, King of Denmark

In 1193 he married Ingeburga, sister of Canute VI, King of Denmark. Imprisoned and divorced during most of their marriage.

Agnes de Méran

Agnes de Méran, daughter of a Bavarian noblema. She died in August, 1201, and Innocent III consented to legitimize the two children she had borne the king,

Issue by Agnes of Merania:[3]

  1. Marie (1198 – 15 August 1238); married firstly Philip I of Namur, had no issue. Married secondly Henry I of Brabant, had issue.
  2. Philip (July 1200 – 14/18 January 1234), Count of Boulogne by marriage.

Others currently linked as children on wikitree

Agnes Pierre

Sources

  • Royal Ancestry by Douglas Richardson Vol. III page 24
  1. Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/herbermann/cathen12.txt
  2. Wikipedia:Philip II of France
  3. Wikipedia:Philip II of France

Notes

N00139Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe II Auguste) (August 21, 1165 ? July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. A member of the Capetian dynasty, Philip Augustus was born on August 21, 1165 at Gonesse, Val-d'Oise, France, the son of Louis VII of France and his third wife, AdËle of Champagne. He was originally nicknamed DieudonnÈ: God-given. Philip II was a younger half-brother of Marie, countess palatine of Champagne, Alix, countess of Blois, Marguerite, queen of Hungary and Alys, Countess of the Vexin. He was an older full brother of Agnes of France, Empress of Constantinople.
In declining health, his father had him crowned at Rheims in 1179. He was married on April 28, 1180 to Isabelle of Hainaut, who brought the County of Artois as her dowry. His father and co-ruler died on September 18, 1180. Philip's eldest son Louis (later King Louis VIII), was born on September 5, 1187 and became Count of Artois in 1190, when Isabelle, his mother, died.
As King, Philip II would become one of the most successful in consolidating northern France into one royal domain, but he never had more than limited influence in southern France. He seized the territories of Maine, Touraine, Anjou, Brittany and all of Normandy from King John of England (1199?1216). His decisive victory at the Battle of Bouvines over King John and a coalition of forces that included Otto IV of Germany ended the immediate threat of challenges to this expansion (1214) and left Philip II Augustus as the most powerful monarch in all of Europe.
He reorganized the government, bringing financial stability to the country and thus making possible a sharp increase in prosperity. His reign was popular with ordinary people because he checked the power of the nobles and passed some of it on to the growing middle class that his reign had created.
His relationships with the sons of his rival Henry II of England were particularly notable - close friends with all of them, he used them to foment rebellion against their father, notably turning against both Richard and John after their respective accessions to their inheritance. With Henry the Young King and Geoffrey of Brittany he maintained friendship until their deaths - indeed, at the funeral of Geoffrey, he was so overcome with grief that he had to be forcibly restrained from casting himself into the grave.
Contents [hide]
1 Early years
2 Third Crusade
3 Marital problems
4 Last years
5 Portrayal in fiction
6 Sources
[edit] Early years
In 1179, Louis VII, in the tradition of his forefathers going back to Hugh Capet, had his son Philip crowned king to assure his smooth succession. On 1 November, Guillaume aux Blanches Mains, Archbishop of Rheims, crowned and anointed the fourteen year-old prince in the cathedral there. His father died on 18 September of the next year.
While the royal power had been increased under Philip I and Louis VI, under Louis VII it had diminished slightly. In April 1182, Philip expelled Jews from the Royal domain (the part of France controlled directly by the King rather than by a vassal) and confiscated their goods.
In 1184, Stephen I of Sancerre and his BrabanÁon mercenaries ravaged the OrlÈanais. Philip, aided by the ConfrËres de la Paix, defeated him and established order.
Since 1181, conflict had been ongoing with the count of Flanders, Philippe of Alsace. Philip managed to counter the ambitions of the count by breaking his alliances with Henry I, Duke of Brabant, and Philipp von Heinsberg, Archbishop of Cologne. In July 1185, the Treaty of Boves confirmed to the king the possession of the Vermandois, Artois, and AmiÈnois.
Philip also began to war with the King Henry of England who was also count of Anjou and duke of Aquitaine in France; two years of combat (1186-1188) followed, but the situation remained unchanged. Philip initially allied and worked with the young sons of Henry, Richard and John, who were in rebellion against their father. The death of Henry and the fall of Jerusalem in 1187 diverted attention from the Franco-English war.
[edit] Third Crusade
Philip (right) and Richard accepting the keys to Acre.Philip went on the Third Crusade with Richard I of England (1189?99) and the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick I Barbarossa (1189?1192). His army left VÈzelay on July 1, 1190. At first the French and English crusaders traveled together, but the armies split at Lyons, as King Richard I decided to go by sea, and Philip took the overland route through the Alps to Genoa. The French and English armies were reunited in Messina, where they wintered together. On March 30, 1191 the French set sail for the Holy Land, where they launched several assaults on Acre before King Richard I arrived (see Siege of Acre). By the time Acre surrendered on July 12, Philip was severely ill with dysentery and had little more interest in further crusading. He decided to return to France, a decision that displeased King Richard I, who said, "It is a shame and a disgrace on my lord if he goes away without having finished the business that brought him hither. But still, if he finds himself in bad health, or is afraid lest he should die here, his will be done." So on July 31, 1191 the French army remained in Outremer under the command of Hugues III, duke of Burgundy. Philip and his cousin Peter of Courtenay, count of Nevers, made their way to Genoa and from there returned to France.
[edit] Marital problems
After Isabelle's early death in childbirth, in 1190, Philip decided to marry again. On August 15, 1193 he married Ingeborg (1175?1236), daughter of King Valdemar I of Denmark (1157?82). She was renamed Isambour, and Stephan of Dornik described her as "very kind, young of age but old of wisdom." For some unknown reason, Philip was repelled by her, and he refused to allow her to be crowned Queen. Ingeborg protested at this treatment; his response was to confine her to a convent. He then asked Pope Celestine III for an annulment on the grounds of non-consummation. Philip had not reckoned with Ingeborg, however; she insisted that the marriage had been consummated, and that she was his wife and the rightful Queen of France. The Franco-Danish churchman William of Paris intervened on the side of Ingeborg, drawing up a genealogy of the Danish kings to disprove the alleged impediment of consanguinity.
Philip Augustus' seal, note the fleur de lis in his right hand.In the meantime Philip had sought a new bride. Initially agreement had been reached for him to marry Marguerite, daughter of William I, Count of Geneva, but the young bride's journey to Paris was interrupted by Thomas I of Savoy, who kidnapped Philip's intended new queen and married her instead, claiming that Philip was already bound in marriage. Philip finally achieved a third marriage, on May 7, 1196, to Agnes of Merania from Dalmatia (c. 1180 ? July 29, 1201). Their children were:
Marie (1198 ? October 15, 1224)
Philippe Hurepel (1200?1234), Count of Clermont and eventually, by marriage, Count of Boulogne
Pope Innocent III (1198?1216) declared Philip Augustus's marriage to Agnes of Merania null and void, since he was still married to Ingeborg. He ordered the King to part from AgnËs; when he did not, the Pope placed France under an interdict in 1199. This continued until September 7, 1200. Due to pressure from the Pope and from Ingeborg's brother, King Valdemar II of Denmark (1202?41), Philip finally took Ingeborg back as his Queen in 1213.
[edit] Last years
Understandably, he turned a deaf ear when the Pope asked him to do something about the heretics in the Languedoc. When Innocent III called for a crusade against the Albigensians or Cathars, in 1208, Philip did nothing to support it, but neither did he hinder it. The war against the Cathars did not end until 1244, when finally their last strongholds were captured. The fruits of it, namely the submission of the south of France to the crown, were to be reaped by Philip's son, Louis VIII, and grandson, Louis IX.
Philip II Augustus would play a significant role in one of the greatest centuries of innovation in construction and in education. With Paris as his capital, he had the main thoroughfares paved, built a central market, Les Halles, continued the construction begun in 1163 of the Gothic Notre-Dame de Paris Cathedral, constructed the Louvre as a fortress and gave a charter to the University of Paris in 1200. Under his guidance, Paris became the first city of teachers the medieval world had known. In 1224, the French poet Henry d'Andeli wrote of the great wine tasting competition that Philip II Augustus commissioned The Battle of the Wines.
Philip II Augustus died July 14, 1223 at Mantes and was interred in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son by Isabelle of Hainaut, Louis VIII (1223?26).
[edit] Portrayal in fiction
Philip is a character in James Goldman's historical play The Lion in Winter. The play maintains the historical theory that he and Richard the Lionhearted had previously had a homosexual relationship. In the 1968 film of The Lion in Winter, which downplayed the homosexual aspect present in the stage play, Philip was played by Timothy Dalton. Jonathan Rhys Meyers played Philip in a 2003 television version.
[edit] Sources
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Philip II of FrancePayne, Robert. The Dream and the Tomb, 1984
Baldwin, John W. The Government of Philip Augustus, 1991
Catholic Encyclopedia article
Preceded by
Louis VII King of France
1180?1223 Succeeded by
Louis VIII
  1. Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/herbermann/cathen12.txt
  2. Wikipedia:Philip II of France
  3. Wikipedia:Philip II of France


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On 25 May 2015 at 14:06 GMT Marty (Lenover) Acks wrote:

II-38 and Capet-12 appear to represent the same person because: Clearly same person

On 2 Dec 2010 at 17:28 GMT Krissi (Hubbard) Love wrote:

King of France from 1180 to 1223.



Philip II is 31 degrees from Rosa Parks, 28 degrees from Anne Tichborne and 18 degrees from Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.

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