Louis IX reined 44 yrs, led the 7th crusade in 1248 (captured in Egypt in 1250) and the 8th crusade 1270. Died of plague in Tunis. Canonized 1297 as St. Louis.
Louis successfully stood up to a dangerous coalition led by Hugh de Lusignan and Raymond VII of Toulouse with the backing of Henry III of England. During the Seventh Crusade (1248-1254), St. Louis captured Damietta, but he was defeated at al-Mansurah in February 1250. Despite the Pope's advice, the reticence of his lords, and his own poor health, Louis set off from Aigues-Mortes for the Eighth Crusade. He died from plague during the Seige of Tunis.
A diplomat with an innate sense of justice and equity, he created the French Parliament and kept an eye on his bailiffs, seneschals, and provosts. He founded a number of hospitals, including the Quinze Vingts for three hundred knights whose eyes had been put out by the Saracen.
Louis commissioned the building of the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris, and was canonized in 1297.