Son of Henry Carey, 2nd Earl of Monmouth, and Lady Martha Cranfield. Paternal grandson of Robert Carey, 1st Earl of Monmouth, and Elizabeth Trevannion. Maternal grandson of Lionel Cranfield, 1st Earl of Middlesex, and Elizabeth Sheppard.
Henry married Mary le Scrope, the illegitimate daughter and co-heiress of Emmanuel Scrope, 1st Earl of Sunderland, and Martha Jeanes.
He became known as Lord Leppington after the death of his elder brother Lionel, at the Battle of Marston Moor.
With his wife he had one son, Henry, also styled Lord Leppington after his father's death. The son died in 1653, and the earldom of Monmouth became extinct on the death of the 2nd Earl in 1661.
The plaque dedicated to him at the Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin in Rickmansworth states that he died of smallpox and is buried at the Savoy Chapel.
His widow later married the 1st Duke of Bolton and died in 1680.
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