||Bernard (Carolingian) di Italia was a member of aristocracy in Europe.|
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Bernard (797, Vermandois, Normandy 17 April 818, Milan, Lombardy), was an illegitimate son of Carloman (Pepin of Italy) , and an unknown woman. His paternal grandparents were Charlemagne and Hildegarde the Swabian. He married Cunigunda of Laon in 813, and had one son: Pepin, Count of Vermandois.
Bernard was crowned King of Italy by Charlemagne. His rule lasted from 810 to 818. He was blinded after he was found to have plotted against his uncle, Emperor Louis the Pious. The mutilation killed him.
Bernard was illegitimate son of Pepin (Carloman), King of Italy. and his mistress.  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Bernhardus filius Pippini ex concubina".  Settipani cites a litany of St Gallen which lists Bernard among Carolingians of illegitimate birth.  Bernard is named only son of Pippin by Einhard. 
Baldwin names Bernard's mother as Chrothais.
Bernard was brought up at Kloster Fulda. 
His paternal grandfather sent him back to Italy in autumn 812, granting him the title "rex Langobardorum" in Apr 813.  Bernard was named to his father's position as king of Italy in 812 or 813 
He was confirmed 11 Sep 813 at Aix-la-Chapelle as Bernard I King of Italy, vassal of the emperor, ruling under the regency of Adalhard abbé de Corbie. 
In 814, Bernard's uncle, Louis I "le Pieux" became emperor. Although Bernard swore allegiance to Louis, the emperor passed the Ordinatio Imperii in Jul 817 which failed to mention Bernard's royal status, effectively depriving him of any role in government and of his royal title. 
The origin of Cunigundis is not known. Settipani suggests that she was Cunigundis, daughter of Héribert, relative of St Guillaume Comte de Toulouse in order to explain the transmission of the name Héribert into the family of Bernard King of Italy. This is highly speculative. It would also mean that Héribert was older than suggested in the document CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY, as it is unlikely that Cunigundis was born later than 800 assuming that the birth date of her son is correctly estimated at . 
Kunigunde died after 15 June 835.  Settipani refers to an act of the monastery of San Alessandro, Parma dated 15 Jun 835 which names her.  Her deceased husband Bernard and her son Pépin are named in the charter.
In 817 Emperor Louis divided the administration of the Empire, his eldest son Lothair was given italy with the title of emperor. Bernard, though apparently not dispossessed, was not included. 
Bernard was tricked into returning to France to ask for the emperor's forgiveness at Chalon-sur-Saône, but was taken to Aix-la-Chapelle where he was sentenced to death.  Louis had Bernard tried at Aachen and blinded. 
Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Bernhardus filius Pippini ex concubina" was blinded and died on the third day which followed this. 
After his death on 17 August 1818, Bernard was buried in San Ambrosio, Milan.
After his death, Italy was once more placed under the direct rule of the emperor. 
In 835 (the date of her charter), his widow, Cunegonde, founded the monastery of Santo Alessandro of Parma 
Bernard and Kunigunde had one son, Pepin (or Pippin) , who was born in 815 and died after 850  i He was born in Vermandois  Pepin became Seigneur de Péronne et de Saint Quentin. Comte near Paris after 834. 
Douglas Richardson  provides one line of descent from Charlemagne to William the Conqueror and four lines of descent from Charlemagne to William's wife Maud.
Affò (1792-5) = Ireneo Affò, Storia della città di Parma, 4 vols. (Parma, 1792-5).
ARF = Georg Pertz & Friedrich Kurze, Annales Regni Francorum (Annals of the kingdom of the Franks), (MGH SRG 6, Hannover, 1895), a collective name commonly given to two closely related sets of annals, Annales Laurissenses Maiores and the so-called Einhardi Annales (Annals of Einhard), in parallel on alternate pages until the coronation of Charlemagne in 800 (s.a. 801).
Brandenburg (1964) = Erich Brandenburg, Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen (Frankfurt, 1964).
MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.
Settipani (1993) = Christian Settipani, La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987 (Première partie - Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens) (Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1993).
Werner (1967) = Karl Ferdinand Werner, "Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen bis um das Jahr 1000 (1.-8. Generation)", Karl der Große 4 (1967): 403-483.
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On 7 Aug 2018 at 23:16 GMT Peter Kilcullen wrote:
Bernard was the LEGITIMATE son of Pepin IV and Bertha of Toulouse
On 6 Mar 2013 at 13:28 GMT Roger Travis Jr. wrote:
On 18 Aug 2012 at 01:19 GMT Tom Cahalan wrote:
Someone please double-check this and remove Bertha as his mother.
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