Category: 11th Century

Categories: Time Periods

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The Eleventh Century CE, i.e. 1001 to 1100

In European history, the 11th century is regarded as the beginning of the High Middle Ages, an age subsequent to the Early Middle Ages. The century began while the translatio imperii of 962 was still somewhat novel and ended in the midst of the Investiture Controversy. It saw the final Christianisation of Scandinavia and the emergence of the Peace and Truce of God movements, the Gregorian Reforms, and the Crusades which revitalised a church and a papacy that had survived tarnished by the tumultuous 10th century. In 1054, the Great Schism rent the church in two, however.

In Germany, the century was marked by the ascendancy of the Holy Roman Emperors, who hit their high watermark under the Salians.

In Italy, it opened with the integration of the kingdom into the empire and the royal palace at Pavia was summoned in 1024. By the end of the century, Lombard and Byzantine rule in the Mezzogiorno had been usurped by the Normans and the power of the territorial magnates was being replaced by that of the citizens of the cities in the north.

In Britain, it saw the transformation of Scotland into a single, more unified and centralised kingdom and the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The social transformations wrought in these lands brought them into the fuller orbit of European feudal politics.

In France, it saw the nadir of the monarchy and the zenith of the great magnates, especially the dukes of Aquitaine and Normandy, who could thus foster such distinctive contributions of their lands as the pious warrior who conquered Britain, Italy, and the East and the impious peacelover, the troubadour, who crafted out of the European vernacular its first great literary themes. There were also the first figures of the intellectual movement known as Scholasticism, which emphasized dialectic arguments in disputes of Christian theology as well as classical philosophy.

In Spain, the century opened with the successes of the last caliphs of Córdoba and ended in the successes of the Almoravids. In between was a period of Christian unification under Navarrese hegemony and success in the Reconquista against the taifa kingdoms that replaced the fallen caliphate. (1)

Subcategories (2)


Person Profiles (33)

A

abt 1040 Saint-Jean-d'Abbetot, Seine-Maritime, Upper Normandy, France - abt 1108 photo

B

Baggio, Milano, Holy Roman Empire - 21 Apr 1073 photo
Tyrol, Bavaria, Holy Roman Empire - 09 Aug 1048 photo
abt 1030 - 1097 photo
1027 Benevento, Holy Roman Empire - 16 Sep 1087
1065 - 13 Dec 1124 photo
Bourgogne, France - 27 Jul 1061 photo
Rome, Holy Roman Empire - 12 May 1012 photo

C

Gaeta, Holy Roman Empire - 28 Jan 1119 photo
abt 1000 - Oct 1063 photo

D

1084 Dammartin-En-Goele, Seine-Et-Marne, France - abt 1139
abt 1018 - 28 Jul 1057 photo

D cont.

abt 1062 Cumbria - 1138 photo

E

21 Jun 1002 Eguisheim, France - 19 Apr 1054 photo

F

G

Rome, Holy Roman Empire - 1048 photo

H

1046 Northumberland, England - abt 31 May 1076 photo

L

Châtillon-sur-Marne, - 29 Jul 1099 photo

M

1005 Hornburg - 09 Oct 1047 photo

N

bef 1015 Scandinavia - 1055 photo

R

- 21 Jan 1118 photo

S

Fiagnano (Imola), Holy Roman Empire - 13 Feb 1130 photo

S cont.

Rome, Holy Roman Empire - abt Jul 1009 photo
abt 1015 Sovana, Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire - 25 May 1085 photo

T

abt 0990 Tancarville, Le Havre, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France - aft 1066 photo
abt 1035 Tancarville, Le Havre, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France - aft 1085
bef 1010 Tancarville, Le Havre, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France - abt 1080 photo
Rome, Holy Roman Empire - 1032 photo
abt 0980 Rome, Holy Roman Empire - 09 Apr 1024 photo
abt 1012 Frascati, Holy Roman Empire - abt 1056 photo

V

Little Crosby, Lancashire, , England - 1111
abt 1100 Warrington, Lancashire, England - bef 1159




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