Category: 12th Century

Categories: Time Periods

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The Twelfth Century CE, i.e. 1101 to 1200

In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages and is sometimes called the Age of the Cistercians. (1)

Ongoing events

  • Europe: 12th century Renaissance. Blast furnace that smelts cast iron imported from China. Appears around Lapphyttan, Sweden, as early as 1150.
  • Alexander Neckam: first European to document mariner's compass. Shen Kuo did it first in the previous century.
  • Christian humanism becomes a self-conscious philosophical tendency in Europe. Christianity introduced to Estonia, Finland, and Karelia.
  • First medieval universities founded. Pierre Abelard teaches.
  • Middle English begins to develop. Literacy begins to spread beyond Church through Europe. Churchmen increasingly willing to take on secular roles. By century end, at least a third of England's bishops act as royal judges in secular matters.
  • Ars antiqua period of western music history begins.
  • Earliest recorded miracle play is performed in Dunstable, England.
  • Gothic Architecture and trouvère music begin in France.
  • Mid-century: Cappella Palatina is built in Palermo, Sicily; Madrid Skylitzes manuscript illustrates Synopsis of Histories by John Skylitzes.
  • Fire and plague insurance first become available in Iceland, and the first documented outbreaks of influenza there happens.
  • Medieval state of Serbia formed by Stefan Nemanja. Continued by Nemanjić dynasty. By century end, House of Capet and House of Anjou rely on mercenaries. Paid soldiers are available year-round, unlike knights who expected certain periods off to maintain manor lifestyles.

Subcategories (2)


Person Profiles (24)

A

abt 1097 Lucca, Holy Roman Empire - 25 Sep 1185 photo

B

abt 1101 Leicester, Leicestershire, England - aft 1172
1065 - 13 Dec 1124 photo
- 01 Sep 1159 photo

C

Gaeta, Holy Roman Empire - 28 Jan 1119 photo
Cuggiono, Holy Roman Empire - 20 Oct 1187 photo

D

abt 1062 Cumbria - 1138 photo

F

23 Nov 1190 Saint-Gilles-du-Gard, Languedoc, France - 29 Nov 1268 photo

G

abt 1130 Gordon, Berwick, Scotland - abt 1200

J

abt 1157 Spain - 07 Apr 1234

M

abt 1146 - 14 May 1219 photo
Benevento, Papal States - 17 Dec 1187 photo

N

abt 1133 Pamplona, Navarre, Spain - 27 Jun 1194

O

abt 1100 Bologna - 15 Feb 1145 photo

P

- 24 Sep 1143 photo
abt 1080 Piza, Holy Roman Empire - 08 Jul 1153 photo

R

- 21 Jan 1118 photo

S

abt 1150 Rome, Papal States - 18 Mar 1227 photo
Fiagnano (Imola), Holy Roman Empire - 13 Feb 1130 photo
1130 - 20 Mar 1191 photo
abt 1160 Gavignano (Rome) - 16 Jul 1216 photo
abt 1170 - 22 Aug 1241 photo
abt 1073 - 03 Dec 1154 photo




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