Category: 17th Century

Categories: Time Periods

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The Seventeenth Century CE, i.e. 1601 to 1700

The 17th century falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent was characterized by the Dutch Golden Age, the Baroque cultural movement, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, and The General Crisis. This last is characterised in Europe most notably by the Thirty Years' War, the Great Turkish War, the end of the Dutch Revolt, the disintegration of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the English Civil War.

European politics during the Crisis were dominated by the France of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde, in which the semi-feudal territorial French nobility was weakened and subjugated to the power of an absolute monarchy through the reinvention of the Palace of Versailles from a hunting lodge to a gilded prison in which a greatly expanded royal court could be more easily kept under surveillance. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded to include, among other regions, Rousillon, Artois, Dunkirk, Franche-Comté, Strasbourg, Alsace and Lorraine.

By the end of the century, Europeans were also aware of logarithms, electricity, the telescope and microscope, calculus, universal gravitation, Newton's Laws of Motion, air pressure and calculating machines due to the work of the first scientists of the Scientific Revolution, including Isaac Newton, Gottfried Leibniz, Galileo Galilei, René Descartes, Pierre Fermat, Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek and William Gilbert among other luminaries. (1)

Significant people

  • Pope Urban VIII
  • Alexis of Russia, Tsar of Russia (1629–1676)
  • Anne of Austria, Queen consort and regent of France (1601–1666)
  • Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden (1594–1632)
  • Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan, lover of Louis XIV (1641–1707)
  • Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon, second wife of Louis XIV (1635–1719)
  • Gabriel Bethlen, Hungarian prince of Transylvania (1580–1629)
  • Queen Christina of Sweden, high profile Catholic convert, matron of arts (1626–1689)
  • Charles I of England (1600–1649)
  • Charles II of England (1630–1685)
  • Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland (1599–1658)
  • Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland (1626–1712)
  • Elizabeth I of England (1533–1603)
  • Hugh O'Neill (Aodh Mór Ó Néill), King of Tyrone and 2nd Earl of Tyrone (1550–1616), an Irish prince whose armies inflicted major defeats upon the English forces of Queen Elizabeth I during the Nine Years War in Ulster.
  • James I of England (1566–1625)
  • James II of England (1633–1701)
  • Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (1640–1705)
  • Louis XIII of France, King of France and Navarre (1601–1643)
  • Louis XIV of France, King of France and Navarre (1638–1715)
  • Mary II of England (1662–1694)
  • Cardinal Mazarin, French cardinal and politician of Italian origin (1602–1661)
  • Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia, first Russian Emperor (1672–1725)
  • Philip IV of Spain, Spanish king (1605–1665)
  • Dmitry Pozharsky, Russian prince, leader of anti-Polish uprising (1577–1642)
  • Cardinal Richelieu, French cardinal, duke, and politician (1585–1642)
  • Michael of Russia, Tsar of Russia (1596–1645)
  • Michiel de Ruyter, Dutch admiral (1607–1676)
  • Jan III Sobieski, King of Poland (1629–1696)
  • Imre Thököly, prince of Transylvania, leader of the anti-Hapsburg uprising in Hungary (1657–1705)
  • Albrecht von Wallenstein, Catholic German general in the Thirty Years' War (1583–1634)
  • William III of England (1650–1702), Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Republic of the United Provinces and King of England
  • Johan de Witt, Grand Pensionary of the Republic of the United Provinces – 1625–1672

Subcategories (20)

Person Profiles (14)

23 Jul 1649 Urbino, Papal States - 19 Mar 1721 photo
24 Feb 1536 Fano, Marche, Papal States - 03 Mar 1605 photo
13 Jul 1590 Rome, Papal States - 22 Jul 1676 photo
05 Apr 1568 Florence, Duchy of Florence - 29 Jul 1644 photo
abt 17 Sep 1550 Rome, Papal States - abt 28 Jan 1621 photo
19 Dec 1685 New Haven, New Haven, Connecticut - abt 1706
13 Feb 1599 Siena, Grand Duchy of Tuscany - 22 May 1667 photo
13 May 1655 - 07 Mar 1724 photo
07 Mar 1693 Venice, Republic of Venice - 02 Feb 1769 photo
31 Mar 1675 - 03 May 1758 photo
09 Jan 1554 Bologna, Papal States - 08 Jul 1623 photo
abt 02 Jun 1535 Florence, Duchy of Florence - 27 Apr 1605 photo
abt 06 May 1574 Rome, Papal States - 07 Jan 1655 photo
28 Jan 1600 Pistoia, Grand Duchy of Tuscany - 09 Dec 1669 photo

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