Category: Scots in French Service

Categories: Scots in Foreign Service | Scottish Military History | Battle of Baugé | Battle of Poitiers

Scots in the Service of France

Although informal cooperation dates to the days of Charlemagne, the Auld Alliance between France and Scotland, created by the treaty signed by John Balliol and Philip IV of France in 1295 against Edward I of England, is generally seen as the impetus for a standing force of Scots in French service. Since that date, Scots have been in service of France on a nearly continuous basis until the Garde Écossaise was disbanded in 1791.

In 1421, a Stewart, John Stewart, Earl of Buchan and Ross led the combined French and Scottish Army at the battle of Baugé against England. The battle, a rout in which the Franco-Scots did not lose any man of importance, whereas Henry V lost some of his most senior commanders plus the heir to the throne of England and commander of his forces in France, cemented the relationship with France. Archibald Douglas, Earl of Wigtown, was made the count of Longueville and lord of Dun-le-roi. Sir John Stewart of Darnley received the lands of Aubigny-sur-Nere and Concressault. The Earl of Buchan was made Constable of France. In 1422 the Dauphin created the "hundred men-at-arms of the King's bodyguard", known as the "Hundred Lances of France", to supplement the 24 archers of the Garde Ecossaise. The Hundred Lances eventually became the company known as the Gendarmerie of France, who distinguished themselves at Fontenoy in 1745. John Carmichael was elected bishop of Orléans in 1426, and was one of the 6 bishops to attend the coronation of the Dauphin as Charles VII in 1429 at Rheims. Hugh Kennedy, known to the French as Canede, was granted the right to quarter his coat of arms with the fleur-de-lis of France

Person Profiles (14)

abt 1695 - 28 Oct 1748
abt 1370 Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland - 17 Aug 1424 photo
1392 Scotland - 1424
bef 1670 Castle Tioram, Moidart, Inverness-shire, Scotland - 14 Nov 1715
abt 1318 Finlaggan Castle, Isle of Islay, Argyll, Scotland - 1387 photo
abt 1725 - 23 Dec 1761
Restalrig, Edinburgh, Scotland - 04 May 1664 photo
aft 1460 Scotland - 1509
abt 1520 - 1584
1460 Scotland - 1512
abt 1380 Darnley, Renfrewshire, Scotland - 12 Feb 1429 photo
1380 Argyll, Scotland - 17 Aug 1424 photo
abt 1460 Scotland - 1503
abt 1470 Scotland - abt Apr 1544

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