Moshulatubbee was the chief of the Choctaw Okla Tannap ("Lower Towns"), one of the three major Choctaw divisions during the early 19th century. While he won renown as a warrior for his exploits against the Osage, he gained more influence through his service in the Creek War of 1813-14 and at the battle of New Orleans with Andrew Jackson. He was a noted orator with a powerful build and possessed great personal magnetism that attracted supporters and detractors. While he prospered as a farmer and slave owner, raising cattle, hogs and horses, he also influenced the Choctaw shift toward a market economy.
Although Moshulatubbee supported the educational efforts of the missionaries, he opposed their religious activities and helped establish the Choctaw Academy in traditionalists who opposed Greenwood LeFlore's efforts to control the Choctaw Nation with his more progressive, cosmopolitan, and predominantly mixed-blood faction. Moshulatubbee was replaced by David Folsom as district chief in 1826, but he regained the office in 1830 during the removal crises.
He emigrated west to Indian Territory in 1832, continued his resistance to missionaries, signed the Fort Holmes treaty in 1835, and served as district chief until 1836. Moshulatubbee died of smallpox, August 30, 1838, near the Choctaw Agency on the Arkansas River and is buried in LeFlore County, Oklahoma.
Moshulatubbee replaced his deceased uncle as chief of the Okla Tannip district prior to the War of 1812. He continued on as leader to that district up through removal and participating in all treaty negotiations during that time.
"During the discussion in Congress of Jackson's Indian Removal Bill, the people of Mississippi, to win the favor of the Choctaw, made a gesture conferring citizenship upon them; and induced chief Mushulatubbe to announce himself in the April issue of the Port Gibson Correspondent as a candidate for Congress."
He emigrated west to Oklahoma Territory in 1832, continued his resistance to missionaries, signed the Fort Holmes treaty in 1835, and served as district chief until 1836.
Apukshunnubbee & Pushmataha
of the Choctaw
Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma
1830 - 1834 During Removal 1834 - 1836 New District
|Portrait by George Catlin ca 1834|
This was copied from a headstone at Hall Cemetery near Cameron, Oklahoma. It was placed by the Oklahoma Historical Society in 1965.
Chief Moshulatubbee Amosholi-T-vbi "Warrior Who Perseveres" Born 1770Chief Moshulatubbee of Northern district, Choctaw Nation in Mississippi, received his name as a young warrior. He was dignified in bearing, of fine physique, steady and thoughtful in disposition. As Chief he was noted for his orders banning liquor traffic and drinking in his county. He strongly favored education, and a mission school (ABCFM) was located at this prairie village near the Natchez Trace in 1824. Moshulatubbee was one of the three head chiefs who signed the early Choctaw treaties with the United States, including that at Dancing Rabbit Creek in 1830, which provided for the removal of the Choctaws from Mississippi. He had high hopes in coming west with his people in 1832, and made his new home in LeFlore County. He died at his home and was buried nearby, his grave covered in unmarked stones. The region from the Arkansas River to the Winding Stair Mountains was called Moshulatubbee District in law books of the Choctaw Nation, 1834 to 1907.
The exact birth date of Moshulatubbee is not known. Upon his death in 1838 it was reported that he was 75 to 80 years old, making his birth ca 1758-1763.
The exact parentage of Moshulatubbee is not known. It has been reported in U.S. Government documents that he is the "son of Moshulatubbee" but more likely was the nephew of his predecessor, due to the matrilineal nature of Choctaw society.
Documentation is lacking as proof to the wives and children of Moshulatubbee. It is certain that he had more than one spouse, and may have had as many as four; but they too, by Choctaw custom, may have used more than one name and therefore should be combined. Some speculate that there may have been plural or simultaneous marriages. Below are the reported spouses, in no particular order, and the most likely children with each spouse. Care has been taken to create as accurate a listing as possible, providing sources where available. However, this is not a definitive list and corrections are welcomed.
His children began to use the surname King, the English translation of the title Mingo given to a district chief.
Note: A man calling himself William Chubbee claimed to be a "lost" child of Moshulatubbee. He wrote a controversial book in 1848 telling his story and "proving" his relationship. He is not included above as this story has been almost certainly debunked. See Wikipedia: William McCary for more details.
As with many Choctaw, Moshulatubbee used different names during his lifetime, although most commonly known to history as Moshulatubbee or Mushulatubbee. Other names and spelling variations appear below:
There is a wonderful biographical sketch attached as a pdf to a profile of Moshulatubbee on another website. This biography was written by Wanda L. Clark and shows a date "Revised 01 March 2000" but the pdf does not contain a bibliography and sources are referenced but not listed. The document is worth your time to review, and if the original can be located it would provide a valuable source for this profile.
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