Richard (Clare) de Clare

Richard (Clare) de Clare (abt. 1153 - bef. 1217)

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Sir Richard "Earl of Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford" de Clare formerly Clare
Born about in Tonbridge Castle, Kent, Englandmap
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married [location unknown]
Descendants descendants
Died before in Tonbridge Castle, Kent, Englandmap
Profile last modified | Created 28 Jun 2014 | Last significant change: 1 Sep 2018
19:59: Liz (Noland) Shifflett posted a message on the page for Richard (Clare) de Clare. [Thank Liz for this | 2 thank-yous received]
This page has been accessed 8,450 times.

Categories: Knights bachelor | Magna Carta | Surety Barons.

Magna Carta Surety Baron
Richard de Clare was one of the twenty-five medieval barons who were surety for Magna Carta in 1215.
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Contents

Biography

Richard de Clare, Knt., 3rd Earl of Hertford (also styled Earl of Clare), of Clare, Suffolk[1][2]

Blazon for Richard Earl of Clare, Hertford and Gloucester: Or, three chevronels gules.[3]

Vitals

Born about 1153[3] at Tonbridge Castle, Kent, England[4]
Son and heir of Roger de Clare, 2nd Earl of Hertford, by Maud, daughter and heiress of James de Saint Hilary, of Field Dalling, Norfolk.[2]
Married Amice of Gloucester, second daughter and co-heiress of William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester, and Hawise, daughter of Robert de Beaumont, Earl of Leicester. Amice's maritagium included the town of Sudbury, Suffolk and 6-1/2 knights fees in Kent.[2]
Sometime before Michaelmas 1198, they were separated by order of the Pope on grounds of consanguinity.[1] "The kinship was presumably due their common descent from Harleve of Falaise, mother of William the Conqueror, King of England, they being related in the 5th and 6th degrees of kindred though Harleve. They were apparently considered divorced by Trinity term 1200, when Amice was called 'former wife of the Earl of Clare.' The issue of the validity of their marriage was presumably resolved, as Amice styled herself in later charters 'Countess of Clare.' Regardless, they appeared to have been estranged at the time of Earl Richard's death, as her charters make no mention of her husband, but only their son and heir, Gilbert."[2]
Children:
Sons:
  1. Gilbert de Clare, Knight, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford,[5] born about 1180, married Isabel Marshal on 9 October 1217[1]
  2. Richard de Clare (murdered in London, 4 May 1228)[6][1]
  3. Roger de Clare, married Alice de Dammartin (no issue)[6][1]
  4. Henry de Clare[2][1]
Daughters:
  1. Maud de Clare, married William de Brewes[6][1][7]
  2. Hawise de Clare, married Geoffrey de Say, Knt.[8][1]
  3. [Joan (?)] de Clare, married as his second wife Rhys Gryg,[8] "lord of Dynevor or Ystradtywi, Prince of South Wales"[9][1]
Died between 30 October (date of will) and 28 November 1217 (date will proved)[1] at Tonbridge Castle.[10]
"Following his death, Tonbridge Priory petitioned the bishop to grant indulgence 'to all who prayed for the soul of Sir Richard de Clare, formerly Earl of Hertford, whose body lies in the church of St. Mary Magdalen of Tonbridge, and the souls of all faithful departed deceased and those who have assisted in the building or upkeep of the lights' of the church of St. Mary Magdalen in Tonbridge. His widow, Amice, caused the earl's body to be carried to Tewkesbury Abbey, Gloucestershire, where it was buried in the choir of the Abbey."[2]

Brief Biographical Summary

Richard de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford (but generally styled Earl of Clare),[2] had the majority of the Giffard estates from his ancestor, Rohese.[3] "The most substantial of all the additions Earl Richard made to the family estate, however, came as a result of his marriage to Amicia, second daughter and eventual sole heiress of William, earl of Gloucester. The Gloucester inheritance was a vast one, comprising over 260 knights’ fees in England and extensive lands in Wales and the Marches."[11] He and Amice, "Countess of Gloucester"[12][13] (c.1160-1220), married about 1172.[3][14]
Richard and his father-in-law William were both suspected of complicity, if not direct involvement, in Earl Hugh le Bigod's rebellion in 1173-74. Clare subsequently supported the king, when the king's son, Henry, whom he had crowned during his own lifetime, rebelled against his father.[2]
In 1173 Richard succeeded his father, Roger de Clare, as 3rd Earl of Hertford.[12] Earl Richard was present at the coronation of King Richard I at Westminster, 3 September 1189.[3] "At the start of the reign of King Richard I, the barony of Long Crendon, Buckinghamshire (which had escheated to the crown in 1164) was divided between him and William Marshal, later Earl of Pembroke."[2]
"In 1198 he excused himself from personal attendance on the king at Hertford",[2] on 27 May 1199 was present at the coronation of King John. He was also present at the homage of King William of Scotland at Lincoln.[3]
"Richard de Clare, appointed to the Twenty Five,"[11] played a leading part in the negotiations for Magna Carta. He sided with the Barons against King John, even though he had previously sworn peace with the King at Northampton, and his castle of Tonbridge was taken.[12] In 1215, his lands in counties Cambridge, Norfolk, Suffolk and Essex were granted to Robert de Betun.[3] Both he and his son, Gilbert, were among the Barons excommunicated by Pope Pope Innocent III on 16 December 1215. On returning to fealty 5 October 1217, he had restitution.[2]
Shortly after Earl Richard's death in 1217, his son and heir, Gilbert, assumed the combined titles of earl of Gloucester and Hertford. Countess Amicia lived out her last years in retirement, probably at Clare.[11] She is said to have died 1 January 1224/5.[2]

Magna Carta 800th Anniversary Biography

by Professor Nigel Saul

"The de Clares were one of the great baronial families of twelfth- and thirteenth-century England, holding wide estates in eastern and western England and beyond. For a while the senior branch, based at Tonbridge (Kent), was eclipsed in fame and fortune by a brilliant junior branch which established itself in South Wales and the Marches. Richard FitzGilbert de Clare of this branch, known to history as ‘Strongbow’, was the leader of the semi-official Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland in Henry II’s reign and obtained a grant of the lordship of Leinster from the king in 1171. This cadet branch became extinct in the male line on the death of Strongbow’s son Gilbert in 1185 and the family’s estates were later taken over by the Marshal earls of Pembroke.

"Richard de Clare, appointed to the Twenty Five, of the senior branch of the family, was the son of Roger de Clare (d. 1173), lord of Tonbridge, who was in turn the younger brother and successor of Gilbert II (d. 1152), to whom King Stephen had granted the title earl of Hertford in or around 1138. In the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries the earls used the title ‘of Hertford’ interchangeably with that of earl of Clare.

"For over four decades until his death in 1217 Earl Richard was the effective head of the house of Clare. He does not appear to have been especially active, however, playing little part in national affairs either in the last years of Henry II’s reign or in that of Richard the Lionheart. He only emerged as a figure of political importance towards the end of his life in the crisis of John’s reign, when he was appointed to the Twenty Five, most probably in recognition less of his personal qualities than his family’s exalted standing in the realm.

"Earl Richard’s greatest and most lasting achievement was to add to the already considerable wealth and landed endowment of his line. In 1189 at the beginning of Richard’s reign, in a major acquisition, he received a grant of half of the honor (or feudal lordship) of the Giffard earls of Buckingham, which had escheated to the crown over twenty years before following the death of the last earl, Walter. The Lionheart effected an equal division between Earl Richard and his cousin Isabel, daughter of Strongbow and wife of William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, both of whom claimed descent from Roesia, Walter’s aunt and wife of Richard FitzGilbert de Clare, first founder of the family.

"In 1195 Earl Richard made another substantial, though less perhaps important, addition to his family’s inheritance when he obtained the feudal honor of St Hilary on the death of his mother Maud, Earl Roger’s widow. The honor, for which Richard offered £360 to the Crown, included lands in Norfolk and Northamptonshire.

"The most substantial of all the additions Earl Richard made to the family estate, however, came as a result of his marriage to Amicia, second daughter and eventual sole heiress of William, earl of Gloucester. The Gloucester inheritance was a vast one, comprising over 260 knights’ fees in England and extensive lands in Wales and the Marches. The story of its partition among the three daughters and co-heiresses is long and complex. Mabel, the eldest of the three, was married to Amaury de Montfort, count of Evreux in Normandy, while Isabel, the third and youngest, was married to the future King John. Mabel’s marriage was childless and on her husband’s death her lands passed to Isabel. John, however, on becoming king, divorced Isabel so that he could marry the Poitevin heiress Isabella of Angouleme, giving his now ex-wife in marriage to Geoffrey de Mandeville, another of the Twenty Five, and charging him 20,000 marks for the privilege. After Geoffrey died in 1216 her hand was taken by a third husband, Hubert de Burgh, but she herself died in 1217, and her estates passed to Amicia and her husband, Earl Richard. Earl Richard survived Isabel by only six weeks and did not live to secure formal seisin of her estates and title. It was left to his son and heir Gilbert, another of the Twenty Five, to succeed to the vast Gloucester inheritance. Shortly after his father’s death Gilbert assumed the combined titles of earl of Gloucester and Hertford. Countess Amicia lived out her last years in retirement, probably at Clare, having been separated from her husband, for reasons unknown, since 1200.

"Earl Gilbert was an active participant on the baronial side in the civil war that followed in the wake of King John’s rejection of Magna Carta. He fought with Louis and the French at the battle of Lincoln in May 1217 and was taken captive by none other than William Marshal, the Regent, whose daughter, Isabel, he was later to marry. In 1225 he was a witness to Henry III’s definitive reissue of Magna Carta. In 1230 he accompanied Henry on his expedition to Brittany, but died on the way back at Penros, in the duchy. The earl’s body was brought by way of Plymouth to Tewkesbury, where he was buried before the high altar of the great abbey. A monument, now lost, was erected to his memory by his widow.

"By a strange irony, the de Clare family, like their predecessors in the Gloucester title, was to come to an end in 1314, after the death of the last earl, in the succession of three daughters and coheiresses and the partition of the family estates between them."

~ Biography courtesy of Professor Nigel Saul and the Magna Carta 800th Anniversary Committee

Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, 5 vols., ed. Kimball G. Everingham (Salt Lake City, Utah: the author, 2013), Vol II, pp 176-185 CLARE #4., #5. Richard de Clare, Knt., #6.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, Royal Ancestry series, 2nd edition, 4 vols., ed. Kimball G. Everingham (Salt Lake City, Utah: the author, 2011), Vol I, p 446 CLARE #1. Richard de Clare, Knt.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Wikipedia: Richard de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford
  4. Sources needed for birth information, but c1153 is reasonable and Tonbridge Castle is likely, as it was the de Clare family's (see Tonbridge Castle).
  5. Magna Carta Ancestry, pp 448-451
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Magna Carta Ancestry, p 448
  7. Medieval Lands (Richard Clare; see also Briouse) shows Matilda/Joan as m (1) William de Briouse, (2) in 1219 "Rhys ap Rhys 'Gryg/the Hoarse', son of Rhys ap Gruffydd & his wife Gwenllian of Powys".
  8. 8.0 8.1 Magna Carta Ancestry, p 449
  9. Richard's daughter who married Rhys Gryg in 1219 had two sons by him: Maredudd ap Rhys Gryg (whose son Rhys married Ada Hastings) & Howel ap Rhys Gryg (Magna Carta Ancestry, p 451)
  10. Tonbridge Castle is not specifically stated, but is likely, considering his body lay "in the church of St. Mary Magdalen of Tonbridge".
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 From the biography of Richard and Gilbert de Clare by Professor Nigel Saul, posted by the Magna Carta 800th Anniversary Committee (see full biography above).
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Richard de Clare and son Gilbert de Clare, entries in Medieval Lands, database online (accessed 26 May 2018): A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families by Charles Cawley © Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, 2000-2018.
  13. Richardson notes: "In Amice's own charters which have survived, she refers to herself solely as Countess of Clare (i.e., Hertford), and never as Countess of Gloucester".
  14. There is no support for the Wikipedia dates for Amice:
    • born 1160 (not given in Royal Ancestry and Medieval Lands, although 1160 fits with son born c1180, which is suggested by both of those sources).
    • married about 1172 (Medieval Lands suggests 1180; a date is not given in Royal Ancestry, but the narrative implies a marriage prior to 1173-74: "He and his father-in-law, William, Earl of Gloucester, were both suspected . . . in Earl Hugh le Bigod's rebellion in 1173-74").
    • died 1220 (contradicted by both Royal Ancestry and Medieval Lands, which have "allegedly died 1 January 1224/5" and January 1225, respectively).
See also:
  • Sir Richard de Clare, Magna Charta Surety, 3rd Earl Hertford, Earl of Clare, Lord of Clare, Tewksbury, & Glamorgan, "Our Royal, Titled, Noble, and Commoner Ancestors and Cousins" (website, compiled by Mr. Marlyn Lewis, Portland, OR)
  • Dictionary of National Biography (Smith, Elder & Co., London, 1885-1900), page 367
  • Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Sixty Colonists Who Came to New England between 1623 and 1650, 6th ed. (Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, MD, 1988)
  • Frederick Lewis Weis, The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, 4th ed. (Lewis Publication: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, Maryland, 1991)
  • Recs-Tewkesbury, Gloucs, Hist. Blechingly Lambert vol. 1 p. 42, 43
  • Falaise Roll p. 80, 81
  • John S Wurts, Magna Charta Barons, pp 89, 90, 57, 58, 422
  • Eng V vol. 2, p. 386, vol. 3, p. 242-44, vol. 4, p. 670, vol. 6, p. 499-502

Acknowledgements

This page has been edited according to Style Standards adopted by January 2014. Click the Changes tab to see edits to this profile; from that list, click WikiTree IDs other than Clare-651 to see changes to those profiles prior to being merged.

Thank you to everyone who contributed to this profile.

Magna Carta Project

As a surety baron, Sir Richard de Clare's profile is managed by the Magna Carta Project. See Clare-651 Descendants for profiles of his descendants that have been improved and categorized by the Magna Carta project and are in a project-approved trail to a Gateway Ancestor. See this index for links to other surety barons and category pages for their descendants. See the project's Base Camp for more information about Magna Carta trails.


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Images: 2
Coat of arms of Richard de Clare
Coat of arms of Richard de Clare

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Collaboration

On 1 Sep 2018 at 19:59 GMT Liz (Noland) Shifflett wrote:

will was proved 28 November 1217, which is the basis for the death date (before 28 November 1217) for this profile.

wikidata has 8 November 1217 but I could not find a source for it.

wikidata also had death place as "Oxfordshire United Kingdom" - couldn't find a source for that either. (See this note re: Tonbridge Castle as death location.)

I'll mark the dbe as false as soon as I can get the status button to work.

On 26 May 2018 at 20:01 GMT Liz (Noland) Shifflett wrote:

Hi! The Magna Carta project is working toward having a project member as "Surety Specialist" for each surety baron, to aid collaboration and to help watch over the profile. (See details about the role of Surety Specialists here, the "long answer" on the project's Glossary page.)
Magna Carta project logo

On 26 May 2018 at 19:54 GMT Liz (Noland) Shifflett wrote:

re: Comment from August 2015 about Rogers being gateway ancestors. They are in the PGM project, but they are not documented by Richardson's Magna Carta Ancestry as Gateway Ancestors. To include them in the Magna Carta project as such, primary sources would need to be found that connect them to Elizabeth Wentworth-54, who is in Richardson's Magna Carta Ancestry as daughter of Roger & Margery, and Margery Despenser-26 is badged by the Magna Carta project (which means that she's on a project-reviewed/approved trail to a Gateway Ancestor). See more about early immigrants who are not documented by Richardson at Category:Questionable Gateway Ancestors.

Cheers, Liz

On 22 May 2018 at 18:35 GMT Darlene (Athey) Athey-Hill wrote:

Liz, Magna Carta project is the PM on this profile. Please 'do your thing' and make it beautiful! Thanks much!!

On 22 May 2018 at 17:39 GMT Liz (Noland) Shifflett wrote:

update: edit done.

This profile - in my opinion - needs a lot of work. It seems to me that there's a lot of unnecessary redundancy and that the genealogical information has been pushed aside in favor of a "Wikipedia-esque" biography.

As a start, would anyone object if I added a "Vitals" section for BMD/parents & kids and also added Sir Nigel's article back intact, rather than having it broken up?

If the EuroAristo Project and/or a profile manager would prefer to edit this profile (instead of me) - or if y'all consider the profile is acceptable as it is - let me know & I'll delete it from my to-do list.

Cheers, Liz

On 31 Dec 2017 at 17:09 GMT Liz (Noland) Shifflett wrote:

update: Isable detached & Roger attached.

Profiles attached as children need work - Isabel shouldn't be attached (see comment on her profile - Clare-671) & Roger probably should (see commnent on his profile - Clare-321).

On 9 Dec 2017 at 06:21 GMT Liz (Noland) Shifflett wrote:

Trail to Gateway Ancestor Beville-27 verified (following "Magna Carta badged" profiles from the Gateway to Clare-651). The project account for the Magna Carta Project will be added as a manager later this month to meet WikiTree guidelines (see Help:Project-Managed_Profiles). Give me a holler if you have any questions. ~ Liz, Magna Carta project member

On 1 Mar 2017 at 06:55 GMT April (Dellinger) Dauenhauer wrote:

The Comment by Chase Ashley regarding the use of "Sir" motivated me to look up Richard de Clare's biography in Richardson's Royal Ancestry, Vol II, page 181. Richard de Clare is written by Douglas Richardson:

"SIR RICHARD DE CLARE, Earl of Hertford, died between 30 October and 28 November 1217."

While it is difficult to say anything is 'conclusive' regarding these Medieval ancestors, Richardson is known to be a stickler for detail, and I would not expect him to write de Clare's title with "SIR" without evidence of some sort.

Regardless that there may be more to it than can be covered here, and this era produces conflicting opinions among experts, it is my opinion WikiTree should continue to use "SIR" unless a question in G2G produces changes in the guidelines.

On 28 Feb 2017 at 23:50 GMT Chase Ashley wrote:

Unless an original record can be produced that shows he was called "Sir", it should be deleted as a prefix since "Sir" supposedly wasn't used as an honorific in England until 1297 and, in any event, was for lesser mortal like knights and baronets. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir

On 10 Aug 2015 at 05:22 GMT Renee Malloy Esq wrote:

Richard's GATEWAY ancestors are:

Margaret Crane-476, Nathaniel Rogers-3352, Samuel Rogers-3354 and Harvard President John Rogers=3353 plus brothers and sisters. How do we get them badges?

more comments


Richard is 26 degrees from SJ Baty, 29 degrees from Orville Redenbacher and 20 degrees from Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.

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