||James Cudworth migrated to New England during the Puritan Great Migration (1620-1640).|
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NOTE: James' mother's parentage is disputed. See notes, below.
James Cudworth's step-father John Stoughton succeeded James's father Ralph Cudworth as Rector of Aller and married Ralph's widow (James's mother). Two of John Stoughton's brothers, Thomas and Israel Stoughton, were early immigrants to Massachusetts, part of Governor Winthrop's fleet in 1630. Perhaps this influenced James Cudworth's decision to immigrate to New England. Israel Stoughton's son William was later the chief magistrate at the Salem Witch Trials.
James's brother Ralph Cudworth was the leader of the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambridge_Platonists "Cambridge Platonists". Brother Ralph's father-in-law was Matthew Cradock, the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Company (who never actually went to America).
"The parish register of Northam, Devonshire, contains the record of a marriage between James Cudworth and Mary Parker on 1 February 1633/4. There are many reasons to think that this record applies to the immigrant. First, the timing would be just right. The date would be just ahead of the sailing season for passenger vessels, and would confirm that Cudworth came to New England in 1634, and not in 1632 as some have thought. Second, this marriage occurs fifteen months before the birth of the first known child of this couple, an appropriate interval. Third, Northam is close to Barnstaple, one of the outports from which many West Countrymen departed for New England. Fourth, there is no other record for the surname Cudworth in the Northam parish register."
Late in life, James Cudworth returned to England on a mission to the king, for Plymouth Colony, to obtain a patent giving formal authorization for the colony's government.  He is believed to have died in England sometime between September 15, 1681, the date of his will, and the date of inventory, June 20, 1682. The will was proved on July 7, 1682. His death was believed to have been from smallpox and due to practices of the 17th century regarding the burial of smallpox victims, his body may have been disposed of rather than having been formally buried.
"In his will, dated 15 September 1681 and proved 7 July 1682, 'James Cudworth Sr. of Scituate' ordered that his estate was to be 'equally divided amongst my children into six parts or portions, my eldest son James Cudworth, he to have a double share, wiht what he hath already received'; to 'my son Israell' one sixth-part; to 'my son Jonathan' one-sixth part; to 'my daughter Marey's four children Israel Whetcomme, Robert , James and Mary,' one-sixth share equally divided; to 'my daughter Joannah Jones' one-sixth part; 'Israel Whetcome and Robert Whetcome and James' to receive their shares at age 21, and 'Mary Whetcome at the aged afoesaid, or date of marriage'; 'my sons [to] enjoy and possess all my lands, the eldest son James two-thirds, Israell and Jonathan each of them one-third'; 'what the moveables fall short of making good Joannah's portion and the four grandchildrens' portions' to be paid out of the sons' estates; 'my three sons James, Israell and Jonathan' joint executors."
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