Rauf is listed as his father Rauf Cudworth's second son in the Cudworth pedigree in the 1613 Lancashire Visitation, signed by Rauf's elder brother John. This would seem to indicate that Rauf was the unborn child mentioned in his father's will dated 21 Aug. 1572 and proved two months later -- and not the Rauf son of Rauf's bastard son Rauf mentioned in the same will.
"Ralph Cudworth the elder matriculated from Emmanuel College in the University of Cambridge in 1588/89, and graduating B.A. (1592/93), M.A. (1596), and B.D. (1603) became a Fellow of the college. In 1606 he was instituted to the Perpetual Vicarage of Coggeshall, Essex, at the presentation of Baron Rich, to replace Thomas Stoughton, who had been deprived by High Commission for nonconformism. He was presented to the rectory of Aller, Somerset by his college (which held the advowson) in c. 1609 or 1610. On 18 June 1611 at Southwark he married Mary Machell (who had been nurse to Prince Henry the son of James I) and their children were christened at Aller over the following decade." Ralph Cudworth, "having been awarded Doctor of Divinity in 1619, died at Aller in autumn 1624, and John Stoughton (son of Thomas Stoughton of Coggeshall), also Fellow of Emmanuel College, who succeeded him as Rector, took the widow Mary Cudworth as his own wife."
"When, in 1603 King James VI of Scotland became James I of England, Rev. Ralph Cudworth was thirty one years of age and Rector of Aller. Among his closest friends was Dr. John Stoughton, whose father Rev. Thomas Stoughton was Vicar of Coggshall, a Living in the gift of Lord Rich, one of whose tenants for many years was the Stoughton family. Dr. John, and Rev. Ralph, were fellow students at Emanuel College, and both were favorites of Lord Rich, who was himself a favorite at Court."
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