Ernest Douwes Dekker

Ernest Douwes Dekker (1879 - 1950)

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Ernest Douwes Dekker aka Danoedirdja Setiaboedi
Born in Pasuruan, Hindia Belandamap
Ancestors ancestors
[sibling(s) unknown]
[spouse(s) unknown]
[children unknown]
Died in Bandung, Jawa Barat, Indonesiamap
Profile last modified | Created 16 Jul 2016
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Categories: Indonesian Authors | Indonesian National Heroes | Famous Indos.


Contents

Biografi

Dr. Ernest François Eugène Douwes Dekker (umumnya dikenal dengan nama Douwes Dekker atau Danudirja Setiabudi; lahir di Pasuruan, Hindia Belanda, 8 Oktober 1879 – meninggal di Bandung, Jawa Barat, 28 Agustus 1950 pada umur 70 tahun) adalah seorang pejuang kemerdekaan dan pahlawan nasional Indonesia.

Ia adalah salah seorang peletak dasar nasionalisme Indonesia di awal abad ke-20, penulis yang kritis terhadap kebijakan pemerintah penjajahan Hindia Belanda, wartawan, aktivis politik, serta penggagas nama "Nusantara" sebagai nama untuk Hindia Belanda yang merdeka. Setiabudi adalah salah satu dari "Tiga Serangkai" pejuang pergerakan kemerdekaan Indonesia, selain dr. Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo dan Suwardi Suryaningrat. (1)

Nama dan Ejaan

Nama Indonesianya Danoedirdja Setiaboedi (ejaan baru: Danudirja Setiabudi).

Kelahiran dan Ayah Ibu

Douwes Dekker terlahir di Pasuruan, Jawa Timur, pada tanggal 8 Oktober 1879, sebagaimana yang dia tulis pada riwayat hidup singkat saat mendaftar di Universitas Zurich, September 1913. Ayahnya, Auguste Henri Edoeard Douwes Dekker, adalah seorang agen di bank kelas kakap Nederlandsch Indisch Escomptobank. Auguste ayahnya, memiliki darah Belanda dari ayahnya, Jan (adik Eduard Douwes Dekker) dan dari ibunya, Louise Bousquet. Sementara itu, ibu Douwes Dekker, Louisa Neumann, lahir di Pekalongan, Jawa Tengah, dari pasangan Jerman-Jawa.[1] Dia terlahir sebagai anak ke-3 dari 4 bersaudara, dan keluarganya pun sering berpindah-pindah. Saudaranya yang perempuan dan laki-laki, yakni Adeline (1876) dan Julius (1878) terlahir sewaktu keluarga Dekker berada di Surabaya, dan adik laki-lakinya lahir di Meester Cornelis, Batavia (sekarang Jatinegara, Jakarta Timur pada tahun 1883. Dari situ, keluarga Dekker berpindah lagi ke Pegangsaan, Jakarta Pusat. (1)


Pasangan dan Anak

Douwes Dekker terlahir di Pasuruan, Jawa Timur, pada tanggal 8 Oktober 1879, sebagaimana yang dia tulis pada riwayat hidup singkat saat mendaftar di Universitas Zurich, September 1913. Ayahnya, Auguste Henri Edoeard Douwes Dekker, adalah seorang agen di bank kelas kakap Nederlandsch Indisch Escomptobank. Auguste ayahnya, memiliki darah Belanda dari ayahnya, Jan (adik Eduard Douwes Dekker) dan dari ibunya, Louise Bousquet. Sementara itu, ibu Douwes Dekker, Louisa Neumann, lahir di Pekalongan, Jawa Tengah, dari pasangan Jerman-Jawa. Dia terlahir sebagai anak ke-3 dari 4 bersaudara, dan keluarganya pun sering berpindah-pindah. Saudaranya yang perempuan dan laki-laki, yakni Adeline (1876) dan Julius (1878) terlahir sewaktu keluarga Dekker berada di Surabaya, dan adik laki-lakinya lahir di Meester Cornelis, Batavia (sekarang Jatinegara, Jakarta Timur) pada tahun 1883. Dari situ, keluarga Dekker berpindah lagi ke Pegangsaan, Jakarta Pusat. (1) Douwes Dekker menikah dengan Clara Charlotte Deije (1885-1968), anak dokter campuran Jerman-Belanda pada tahun 1903, dan mendapat lima anak, namun dua di antaranya meninggal sewaktu bayi (keduanya laki-laki). Yang bertahan hidup semuanya perempuan. Perkawinan ini kandas pada tahun 1919 dan keduanya bercerai.(1) Kemudian Douwes Dekker menikah lagi dengan Johanna Petronella Mossel (1905-1978), seorang Indo keturunan Yahudi, pada tahun 1927. Johanna adalah guru yang banyak membantu kegiatan kesekretariatan Ksatrian Instituut, sekolah yang didirikan Douwes Dekker. Dari perkawinan ini mereka tidak dikaruniai anak. Di saat Douwes Dekker dibuang ke Suriname pada tahun 1941 pasangan ini harus berpisah, dan di kala itu kemudian Johanna menikah dengan Djafar Kartodiredjo, yang juga merupakan seorang Indo (sebelumnya dikenal sebagai Arthur Kolmus), tanpa perceraian resmi terlebih dahulu. Tidak jelas apakah Douwes Dekker mengetahui pernikahan ini karena ia selama dalam pengasingan tetap berkirim surat namun tidak dibalas.(1)

Sewaktu Douwes Dekker "kabur" dari Suriname dan menetap sebentar di Belanda (1946), ia menjadi dekat dengan perawat yang mengasuhnya, Nelly Alberta Geertzema née Kruymel, seorang Indo yang berstatus janda beranak satu. Nelly kemudian menemani Douwes Dekker yang menggunakan nama samaran pulang ke Indonesia agar tidak ditangkap intelijen Belanda. Mengetahui bahwa Johanna telah menikah dengan Djafar, Douwes Dekker tidak lama kemudian menikahi Nelly, pada tahun 1947. Douwes Dekker kemudian menggunakan nama Danoedirdja Setiabuddhi dan Nelly menggunakan nama Haroemi Wanasita, nama-nama yang diusulkan oleh Sukarno. Sepeninggal Douwes Dekker, Haroemi menikah dengan Wayne E. Evans pada tahun 1964 dan kini tinggal di Amerika Serikat.(1)

Walaupun mencintai anak-anaknya, Douwes Dekker tampaknya terlalu berfokus pada perjuangan idealismenya sehingga perhatian pada keluarga agak kurang dalam. Ia pernah berkata kepada kakak perempuannya, Adelin, kalau yang ia perjuangkan adalah untuk memberi masa depan yang baik kepada anak-anaknya di Hindia kelak yang merdeka. Pada kenyataannya, semua anaknya meninggalkan Indonesia menuju ke Belanda ketika Jepang masuk. Demikian pula semua saudaranya, tidak ada yang memilih menjadi warga negara Indonesia.(1)


Kehidupan dan Wafat

Ernest Douwes Dekker wafat dini hari tanggal 28 Agustus 1950 (tertulis di batu nisannya; 29 Agustus 1950 versi van der Veur, 2006) dan dimakamkan di TMP Cikutra, Bandung.

Jasa DD dalam perintisan kemerdekaan diekspresikan dalam banyak hal. Di setiap kota besar dapat dijumpai jalan yang dinamakan menurut namanya: Setiabudi. Jalan Lembang di Bandung utara, tempat rumahnya berdiri, sekarang bernama Jalan Setiabudi. Di Jakarta bahkan namanya dipakai sebagai nama suatu kecamatan, yakni Kecamatan Setiabudi di Jakarta Selatan.

Di Belanda, nama DD juga dihormati sebagai orang yang berjasa dalam meluruskan arah kolonialisme (meskipun hampir sepanjang hidupnya ia berseberangan posisi politik dengan pemerintah kolonial Belanda; bahkan dituduh "pengkhianat").


Biography

Ernest François Eugène Douwes Dekker (8 October 1879 – 28 August 1950) was an Indonesian-Dutch freedom fighter and politician of Indo descent. He was related to the famous Dutch anti-colonialism writer Multatuli, whose real name was Eduard Douwes Dekker ("Douwes Dekker" being their surname). In his youth, he took part in the Second Boer War in South Africa on the Boer side. His thoughts were highly influential in early years of the Indonesian freedom movement.

After Indonesian independence, he adopted the Sundanese name, Danoedirdja Setiaboedi.(2)

Name and Spellings

His Indonesian name was Danoedirdja Setiaboedi (new spelling: Danudirja Setiabudi).

Birth and Parentage

Douwes Dekker was born in Pasuruan, in the north eastern city of Java, 80 km south of Surabaya. His father was Auguste Henri Edouard Douwes Dekker, a broker and bank agent, of a Dutch family living in the then-Dutch East Indies. His Indo (Eurasian) mother was Louisa Margaretha Neumann, of half-German and half-Javanese descent. Douwes Dekker's great-uncle was the famous writer Eduard Douwes Dekker, author of Max Havelaar. (2)

Marriages and Children

Douwes Dekker was born in Pasuruan, East Java, on 8th Octoer 1879, as he wrote in his short life story written at the University of Zurich, Spetember 1913. His father, Auguste Henri Edoeard Douwes Dekker, was a high profile agent at Nederlandsch Indisch Escomptobank. Auguste's father, Jan (younger brother of Eduard Douwes Dekker) was of Dutch blood and his mother, Louise Bousquet. but his own mother, Louisa Neumann, born in Pekalongan, Central Java, from a German-Javanese couple. He was born as the third chid of four sibngs, and his family often moved around. His brothers and sisters were Adeline (1876) and Juius (1878), born when Dekker's family were in Surabaya, and his little brother was born at Meester Cornelis, Batavia (now Jatinegara, East Jakarta) in1883. From there, the Dekker family moved again to Pegangsaan, Central Jakarta.


Douwes Dekker married Clara Charlotte Deije (1885-1968), the daughter of a mixed German-Dutch couple in 1903, and had five children , two of which died as babies (boys). The ones who survived were girls. The marriage foundered in 1919 and they divorced.

After his release from prison in 1922, he taught in Bandung in a lower school. Two years later as head of the school, he renamed it the "Ksatrian Institute". This institute was officially recognised by the government in 1926. In the same year, he married Johanna Mussel, one of its teachers, six years after divorcing his first wife. Sukarno was a teacher at one of his schools.

After he returned to Indonesia, he was appointed a member of the provisional parliament, or Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat (Indonesian National Central Committee). In February 1947, he changed his name to Danudirja Setiabudi which means 'powerful substance, faithful spirit'. In 1947 he divorced his second wife and married the Indo European Nelly Alberta Kruymel, who had changed her name to Haroemi Wanasita, in an Islamic ceremony. (2)

Life and Death

In Dutch literature he is portrayed as a tragic and misunderstood historic figure. However, his legacy as a national hero is still appreciated in Indonesia; a district and a main street in Jakarta are named Setiabudi in his honour. In Bandung, there is also a main street called Setiabudi, and another is named Ksatrian after his school. He was recognized as National Hero by President Sukarno. His life is recorded in a biography, 'Het Leven van EFE Douwes Dekker, by Frans Glissenaar in 1999.

After he returned (from exile in Suriname) to Indonesia, he was appointed a member of the provisional parliament, or Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat (Indonesian National Central Committee). In February 1947, he changed his name to Danudirja Setiabudi which means 'powerful substance, faithful spirit'. In 1947 he divorced his second wife and married the Indo European Nelly Alberta Kruymel, who had changed her name to Haroemi Wanasita, in an Islamic ceremony.

In December 1948 he was lifted from his sick bed and arrested by Dutch troops, but released due to his poor health.

He spent his last years in Bandung, writing his autobiography, 70 Jaar Konsekwent. On his seventieth birthday to his delight he witnessed the formal Dutch transfer of sovereignty to Indonesia in 1949. He died eight months later in 1950. (2)

Sumber/ Sources

(1)https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Douwes_Dekker

(2) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Douwes_Dekker



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Ernest is 41 degrees from Rosa Parks, 36 degrees from Anne Tichborne and 29 degrees from Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.

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