||Duncan I (Dunkeld) of Scotland was a member of aristocracy in the British Isles.|
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Owen the Bald
|King of Strathclyde
c1018 - 1034
|King of Scots
25 November 1034 - 14 August 1040
Duncan did not possess political or military acumen. This made him unpopular with subjects and nobility. Killed by Macbeth on August 15, 1040,, he is chiefly remembered for Shakespeare's depiction.
The feud between these two might relate to a dispute over succession, but details are obscure. The only certainty is that MacBeth killed Duncan in battle near Elgin, Moray.
1018-1034: King of Strathclyde
before 1034: ruled as rex Cumbrorum in the Kingdom of Strathclyde
1034-1040: King of Scots. succeeds maternal grandfather, Malcolm III. ... "first example of inheritance of the Scottish throne in the direct line", as opposed to previous tanistry system.
1038: attacked by Eadulf of Berncia;Ealdred, Earl of Northumbria, invaded Strathclyde, perhaps in an attempt to wrest it from the Scots.
Ashley, M. (2008). A Brief History of British Kings and Queens, (pp.106-107). Philadelphia, PA: Running Press Book Publishers. Print.
The Queen Mother (n.d.). N.p.
Steel, T. (n.d.). Scotlands Story. N.p.
Maclean, F. (n.d.). Scotland, a Concise History. N.p.
Weir, A. (1999). Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy, (pp.179-181). London: The Bodley Head.
Mosley, C. (1999). Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, (106th ed, Vol. 1, pp.13). Crans, SW: Genealogical Books Ltd.
He was son of Crínán, hereditary lay abbot of Dunkeld, and Bethóc, daughter of king Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Malcolm II).
Unlike the "King Duncan" of Shakespeare's Macbeth, the historical Duncan appears to have been a young man. He followed his grandfather Malcolm as king after the latter's death on 25 November 1034, without apparent opposition. He may have been Malcolm's acknowledged successor or Tànaiste as the succession appears to have been uneventful. Earlier histories, following John of Fordun, supposed that Duncan had been king of Strathclyde in his grandfather's lifetime, between 1018 and 1034, ruling the former Kingdom of Strathclyde as an appanage. Modern historians discount this idea.
An earlier source, a variant of the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba (CK-I), gives Duncan's wife the Gaelic name Suthen. Whatever his wife's name may have been, Duncan had at least two sons. The eldest, Malcolm III (Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) was king from 1058 to 1093, the second Donald III (Domnall Bán, or "Donalbane") was king afterwards. Máel Muire, Earl of Atholl is a possible third son of Duncan, although this is uncertain.
The early period of Duncan's reign was apparently uneventful, perhaps a consequence of his youth. Macbeth (Mac Bethad mac Findláich) is recorded as having been his dux, today rendered as "duke" and meaning nothing more than the rank between prince and marquess, but then still having the Roman meaning of "war leader". In context — "dukes of Francia" had half a century before replaced the Carolingian kings of the Franks and in England the over-mighty Godwin of Wessex was called a dux — this suggests that Macbeth may have been the power behind the throne.
In 1039, Duncan led a large Scots army south to besiege Durham, but the expedition ended in disaster. Duncan survived, but the following year he led an army north into Moray, Macbeth's domain, apparently on a punitive expedition against Moray. There he was killed in action, at Bothnagowan, now Pitgaveny, near Elgin, by the men of Moray led by Macbeth, probably on 14 August 1040. He is thought to have been buried at Elgin before later relocation to the Isle of Iona.
Duncan was a haemophiliac who bled to death after fighting with MacBeth. In 1034 Malcolm's grandson Duncan I succeeded him, but in 1040 he was killed by Macbeth, who contrary to Shakespearian legend ruled well and wisely for seventeen years, extending Scotland's connections with England and the Continent, until defeated and killed by Duncan's son, Malcolm III, known as Malcolm Canmore.
2 - Duncan's reign was short and unsuccessful. He was killed, probably in battle at Pitgaveny near Elgin, by a rival claimant and cousin MacBeth.
3 - On Malcolm's death in 1034, Duncan became king, the second to rule all Scotland. He was a weaker man than his grandfather, Malcolm II, with less understanding of the vulnerability of his position. The northern Scots, everÙCbÙD ÙC/bÙDon the watch to snatch the throne, tookÙCbÙD ÙC/bÙDadvantage of this weakness. Macbeth, chief of this powerful race, harboured a claim to the throne through his mother. He fought tenaciously, and finally managed to kill Duncan in 1040 becoming King of Scotland in his place. [ An Illustrated History of Scotland by Elisabeth Fraser pub. 1997 ] 
Alt. Death 14 Oct 1040 
Buried Isle of Iona, Kilfinichen & Kilvickeon, Argyllshire, Scotland
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