Aurore (Dupin) Dupin de Francueil
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Amantine Aurore Lucile (Dupin) Dupin de Francueil (1804 - 1876)

Amantine Aurore Lucile (Aurore) "George Sand" Dupin de Francueil formerly Dupin aka Dudevant, Sand
Born in Paris, Seine, Francemap
Ancestors ancestors
Wife of — married 17 Dec 1822 in Paris, Seine, Francemap
Descendants descendants
Died in Nohant-Vic, Indre, Francemap
Profile last modified | Created 14 May 2017 | Last significant change: 4 May 2021
08:59: Isabelle (Rassinot) Martin edited the Biography for Amantine Aurore Lucile (Dupin) Dupin de Francueil (1804-1876). [Thank Isabelle for this]
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Biography

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Notables Project
Aurore (Dupin) Dupin de Francueil is Notable.

Amantine Aurore Lucile Dupin de Francueil (/amɑ̃tin lysil oʁɔʁ dypɛ̃/[1]), baronness Dudevant, known under the pseudonym of George Sand (/ʒɔʁʒ sɑ̃d/[1]), is a French author of the 19th century. She was the only 19th century French female author to live off her works.

Aimantine-Aurore-Lucile Dupin was born 12 Messidor year XII of the Republic (July 1, 1804). She was the daughter of Maurice Dupin and Antoinette-Victoire-Sophie Delaborde.[2] Her parents had married just one month before her birth and were of starkly different backgrounds: her father, an officer with Napoléon's army, was the son of a rich financier and of Marie-Aurore de Saxe, herself the illegitimate daughter of Marshall Maurice de Saxe; in contrast, her mother was the daughter of a bird seller. Maurice Dupin had married without his mother's permission.

In 1808, when Aurore was 4 years old, her father was sent to Spain. Her mother decided to join her husband, against his advice, although she was heavily pregnant. She took Aurore with her. She gave birth to a son soon after reaching Madrid, but the child died shortly after the family returned to France, at 3 months of age. A few days later Maurice, Aurore's father, died after being thrown off his horse.[3] Aurore's paternal grandmother, Aurore de Saxe, did not trust her mother to raise Aurore, and negociated to raise the child herself, while Sophie returned to Paris. Aurore was raised by her grandmother in the village of Nohant, in the province of Berry in central France. She would remain fond of the place all her life and used it as the setting of many of her novels.

Aurore married Casimir Dudevant on 17 September 1822 in Paris[4] They had two children:

  1. Maurice, born in 1823 in Paris
  2. Solange. born in 1828 in Nohant (Indre).

But the couple is ill-assorted and the marriage unsuccessful. Casimir drank and had affairs with servants, and Aurore soon began to have affairs.[5] She and her husband were officially separated on 16 February 1836 at La Châtre.[5]

In 1830 Aurore met Jules Sandeau. Together they wrote a novel Rose et Blanche, signed J. Sand. Aurore kept part of that name to build her pen name: George Sand. Her first personal work, Indiana, is published in 1832, under the name G. Sand. All her subsequent works are signed George Sand.

While she lived in Paris, George Sand occasionnally wore men's clothing, as it was less expensive, far sturdier and more comfortable than a noblewoman's dress. In addition, her male attire enabled George Sand to circulate more freely in Paris and gain access to venues from which women were barred. She also smoked tobacco in public.

After separating from her husband, Aurore Dupin lived at Nohant, where she had spend her childhood, with her two children. It was at Nohant that she wrote most of her works, usually at night, in a small room adjacent to her children's bedroom. Under the pen name George Sand, she wrote 80 novels including, Indiana (first personal work, 1832), Lélia, Mauprat, Consuelo, Le Meunier d'Angibault, La Mare au diable, François le Champi, La Petite Fadette, Les Maîtres Sonneurs, Ces Beaux Messieurs de Bois-Doré, etc. She is also the author of short stories, plays, an autobiography (Histoire de ma vie) and leaves a voluminous correspondence. She was able to support her family, maintain her house at Nohant and serve a pension to her former husband François Dudevant with her earnings.

In 1833 she met poet and author Alfred de Musset. Their stormy affair lasted about two years. The couple travelled to Venice in December 1833. George Sand became ill there and was taken care of by the physician Pietro Pagello. Jealous, Musset returned to France on 29 March 1834, alone.[5] George Sand returned to France during the summer, escorted by Pagello, who would come back to Italy a few months later, George Sand and Musset being reconciled.[5].

George Sand petitioned to be officially separated from her husband after her final breakup with Musset, in March 1835. Her counsel was Louis-Chrysostome Michel, known as Michel de Bourges.[5]

George Sand was Frédéric Chopin's companion for nine years, from 1838 to 1847. They lived together at Nohant during summers and spent winters in Paris. Chopin composed many of his works at Nohant.[6].

After parting ways with Chopin George Sand was introduced to engraver Alexandre Manceau by her son Maurice, in December 1849. They remained together until Manceau's death in 1865.

George Sand loved to entertain her many friends at Nohant. Among others, Franz Liszt, Marie d'Agoult, Honoré de Balzac, Alexandre Dumas fils, Gustave Flaubert, Eugène Delacroix were frequent visitors.[7]

Politically, George Sand sided with the poor and working class in her early life, and supported women's rights. Her three first novels, Indiana, Valentine and Lélia were virulent attacks against marriage. She was an ardent republican and supporter of the 1848 Revolution. However, she took opposing views during the Paris Commune of 1871, open supporting the Versailles assembly, and declaring herself appalled by the violence of the Commune.

George Sand died at Nohant on 8 June 1876.[8] She is buried in the family cemetery, situated in the park of her house and adjoining the communal cemetery.

Biographie

English version above

Aurore Dupin de Francueil, baronne Dudevant, connue sous le pseudonyme de George Sand, est un écrivain français du 19ème siècle.

Aimantine-Aurore-Lucile Dupin est née à Paris le 12 Messidor an XII (1er juillet 1804). Elle était la fille de Maurice Dupin et Antoinette-Victoire-Sophie Delaborde[2], qui s'étaient mariés le mois précédent. Ses parents ont des origines contrastées: son père, officier de l'armée impériale, est le fils de Claude Dupin, un riche financier, et de Marie-Aurore de Saxe, fille illégitime du maréchal Maurice de Saxe. A l'opposé, sa mère Victoire Delaborde est la fille d'un modeste oiseleur.

En 1808 Aurore, âgée de 4 ans, accompagne sa mère partie sur un coup de tête rejoindre Maurice en Espagne. Au terme d'un périple épuisant, Sophie Delaborde accouche d'un fils qui ne vivra que 3 mois. Quelques jours plus tard, Maurice meurt à son tour d'une chute de cheval[3]. La grand-mère d'Aurore, Marie-Aurore de Saxe, négocie avec sa mère et obtient la garde de l'enfant. Aurore est élevée par sa grand-mère dans sa propriété de Nohant, dans la campagne berrichonne. Aurore restera toute sa vie attachée à la région et y situera nombre de ses romans.

Aurore Dupin a épousé le 17 septembre 1822 Casimir Dudevant à Paris, ancien 2ème arrondissement[4]. Deux enfants naissent de ce mariage:

  1. Maurice, né à Paris en 1823
  2. Solange. née à Nohant en 1828

Mais le couple, mal assorti, s'entend mal; Casimir Dudevant boit et Aurore prend très vite des amants[5]. La séparation est officialisée par le tribunal de La Châtre le 16 février 1836[5].

En 1830 Aurore rencontre Jules Sandeau. Ils écrivent ensemble le roman Rose et Blanche, sous le pseudonyme de J. Sand, dont elle gardera la fin pour son nom de plume: George Sand.

A Paris, George Sand s'habille parfois en homme: les vêtements d'homme sont bien plus confortables, solides et moins coûteux qu'une robe de femme de son milieu. De plus, les habits masculins lui permettent de circuler dans Paris plus librement et d'accéder à des endroits en principe inaccessibles aux femmes. Elle faisait aussi scandale en fumant en public.

Après s'être séparée de son mari, Aurore Dupin a vécu dans sa maison d'enfance à Nohant, avec ses deux enfants. C'est là qu'elle écrit la plupart de ses œuvres, la nuit, dans une petite pièce près de la chambre de ses enfants. Sous le nom de plume de George Sand, elle a écrit 80 romans dont est l'auteur de 80 romans dont Indiana (premier roman sous le nom de George Sand, 1832), Lélia, Mauprat, Consuelo, Le Meunier d'Angibault, La Mare au diable, François le Champi, La Petite Fadette, Les Maîtres Sonneurs, Ces Beaux Messieurs de Bois-Doré, etc. Elle est aussi l'auteur de nouvelles, de pièces de théâtre, d'une autobiographie (Histoire de ma vie) et laisse une abondante correspondance. Elle est la seule femme à vivre de sa plume au 19ème siècle[5], ce qui lui permet d'entretenir son domaine de Nohant tout en versant une pension à François Dudevant.

Elle rencontre en 1833 le poète et écrivain Alfred de Musset, avec lequel elle noue une liaison orageuse qui durera deux ans. Ils partent pour Venise en décembre 1833, et c'est là que George Sand, malade, rencontre le médecin Pietro Pagello. Musset, jaloux, rentrera seul en France le 29 mars 1834[5]. George Sand rentre à son tour à l'été, accompagnée Pagello, qui rentrera en Italie au mois d'octobre suivant, après que Sand ait renoué avec Musset[5].

C'est après sa dernière rupture avec Musset (mars 1835) que George Sand demande la séparation de corps avec son mari. Elle est défendue par l'avocat Louis-Chrysostome Michel, dit Michel de Bourges[5].

De 1838 à 1847, George Sand est la compagne de Frédéric Chopin. A Nohant, où ils passent leurs étés, Chopin compose une bonne partie de son oeuvre[6].

Après le départ de Chopin, c'est le fils de George, Maurice, qui lui présente Alexandre Manceau, un graveur sur cuivre, en décembre 1849. Ils vivront ensemble jusqu'à la mort de Manceau en 1865.

George Sand aimait inviter ses amis à Nohant. Parmi eux, Franz Liszt, Marie d'Agoult, Honoré de Balzac, Alexandre Dumas fils, Frédéric Chopin, Gustave Flaubert, Eugène Delacroix y ont fait de fréquents séjours[9]

Les premiers romans de George Sand sont féministes: Indiana, Valentine et Lélia sont des brûlots contre le mariage. Par la suite, George Sand s'est ouverte au roman social et a pris le parti des pauvres et de la classe ouvrière. Républicaine convaincue, elle soutient la révolution de 1848. A l'opposé, elle soutient le parti des Versaillais lors de la Commune de Paris en 1871, et écrit son dégoût de la violence de la Commune.

George Sand meurt dans sa maison de Nohant le 8 juin 1876[8]. Elle est enterrée dans le cimetière familial du parc du château, adjacent au cimetière du village.

Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 Wikipedia Contributors. “George Sand.” Wikipedia, 14 Aug. 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Sand
  2. 2.0 2.1 Acte de naissance reconstitué : https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Sand#/media/File:George_Sand_(1804)_Naissance.jpg, consulté le 22 août 2017 via Wikipedia
  3. 3.0 3.1 Acte de décès: Décès 1808 Nohant, Archives de l'Indre en ligne cote 3 E 143/003-4 (MD 1793-1834 Nohant-Vic), vues 69-70, http://www.archives36.fr/ark:/30439/s005b716dafca1f1/5b716e814727f (vue 69: copie du rapport de police; page suivante: fin du rapport de police et acte de décès)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Index des mariages, Dupin 1777-1849, Fichiers de l'état-civil parisien reconstitué, Archives de Paris en ligne cote V3E/M 344 (vue 7), consulté le 21 août 2017
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 Contributeurs de Wikipédia, "George Sand," Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre, http://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Sand&oldid=140062978 (Page consultée le 27 août 2017).
  6. 6.0 6.1 Fréderic Chopin à Nohant, La Compagnie des Œuvres, France Culture (émission radio), 26 juin 2019.
  7. Contributeurs de Wikipédia, "Domaine de George Sand," Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Domaine_de_George_Sand&oldid=181772786 (Page consultée le 19 avril 2021).
  8. 8.0 8.1 Acte de décès: Acte #12, Décès 1876 Nohant-Vic, Archives de l'Indre en ligne cote 3 E 143/012 (NMD 1873-1883) (vue 117), consulté le 27 août 2017
  9. Contributeurs de Wikipédia, "Domaine de George Sand," Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Domaine_de_George_Sand&oldid=181772786 (Page consultée le 19 avril 2021).

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Comments: 5

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Hello Profile Managers!

We are featuring Amantine alongside Charlotte Brontë, the Example Profile of the Week, in the Connection Finder on April 21, Charlotte's birthday, with the theme of 19th Century Women Authors. Between now and then is a good time to take a look at the sources and biography to see if there are updates and improvements that need made, especially those that will bring it up to WikiTree Style Guide standards. We know it's short notice, so don't fret too much. Just do what you can. A Team member will check on the profile the day before the Connection Finder is updated and make last minute style-guide changes as necessary.

Thanks! Abby

posted by Abby (Brown) Glann
Dupin de Francueil-2 and Dupin-27 appear to represent the same person because: Clear duplicate. Please merge and do not disconnect previously attached family members to attach them to new duplicates.
Hello,

Can you tell me why edits, written in English, have been deleted in their entirety when there is no information listed on this profile in English? The least that could be done is a translation of what has been written in french OR re-formatting of the added information. You basically wiped away the last half-hour of my life because you didn't like that I added to this profile in my language... though I see you kept ONE of the sources that I cited - so why did you discard the other?

posted by DK Clews
This profile is, like all WikiTree profiles, a work in progress and an English version of the biography is planned. So far, the profile has not generated enough interest to make in an emergency.

The information you added is still available from the Changes tab. It will need to be integrated carefully as there is much more to George Sand than her mother's behavior, although young Aurore being brought up by her grandmother was, indeed, a crucial part of her formation. The link to Marie-Aurore Dupin's English Wikipedia page has been transferred to her own profile, de Saxe-37.

posted by Isabelle (Rassinot) Martin
edited by Isabelle (Rassinot) Martin
Hi Marek,

Thanks for creating this profile. However, the men with whom she had affairs should be disconnected as husbands; she was only married to Casimir Dudevant. Thank you!

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