Borso d'Este, duc de Modène (1413-1471) He succeeded his brother 1450 as Signore di Ferrara, Modena e Reggio. He was created Duke of Modena and Reggio by the Emperor 1452. He was created Duke of Ferrara by the Pope 14 Apr 1471.
Wikipedia: House of Este ([ˈɛste] Italian: Casata d'Este, originally House of Welf-Este) is a European princely dynasty. It's one of the most ancient noble dynasties in Europe. The elder branch of the House of Este included the Dukes of Brunswick and Lüneburg (1208–1918) and produced Britain's Hanoverian monarchs and one Emperor of Russia (Ivan VI).
Commentary from The Estes Family in the Italian Renaissance:
"According to the Wikipedia article on the House of Este http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Este, The lordship of Ferrara was made hereditary by Obizzo II (d. 1293) who was proclaimed Lord of Ferrara in 1264, Lord of Modena 1288 and Lord of Reggio 1289.
Ferrara being a papal fief, the Este Family were given the position of hereditary Papal Vicars in 1332. Ferrara became a significant center of culture under Niccolò d'Este III (1384–1441), who received several popes with great magnificence, especially Eugene IV, who held a Council here in 1438 later known as the Council of Florence.
His successors were Leonello (1407–1450) and Borso (1413–1471), who was elevated to Duke of Modena and Reggio by Emperor Frederick III in 1452 and in return received these duchies as imperial fiefs.
In 1471 he received the Duchy of Ferrara as papal fief from Pope Paul II, for which occasion splendid frescoes were executed at Palazzo Schifanoia.
Both Leonello and his brother Borso were illegitimate sons (the mother of both was Stella de' Tolome. Leonello, as the eldest, became Marquess of Ferrara on his father's death. On the death of Leonello, for reasons unknown his brother Borso, instead of his son Francesco, became Marquess. And Francesco fled to northern Europe, eventually settling in England. Considering the culture of violence in that time and place, he probably fled for his life."
It may be possible to confirm family relationships with Borso by comparing test results with other carriers of his ancestors' Y-chromosome or mitochondrial DNA.
Y-chromosome DNA test-takers in his direct paternal line on WikiTree: