Robert FitzWalter

Robert FitzWalter (abt. 1180 - 1235)

Privacy Level: Open (White)
Robert "Lord of Dunmow Castle, Essexshire" FitzWalter
Born about in Essex, Englandmap
Ancestors ancestors
Husband of — married before 13 Oct 1199 [location unknown]
Husband of — married 27 Dec 1207 in Woodham Walter, Essex, , Englandmap
Descendants descendants
Died in Essex, Englandmap [uncertain]
Profile last modified 12 Sep 2019 | Created 30 Mar 2014
This page has been accessed 9,134 times.
Magna Carta Surety Baron
Robert FitzWalter was one of the twenty-five medieval barons who were surety for Magna Carta in 1215.
Join: Magna Carta Project
Discuss: magna_carta

Contents

Biography

"Robert FitzWalter (d. 1235) has as good a claim as anyone to being regarded as the leader of the baronial opposition to John, styling himself in letters ‘Marshal of the Army of God’. An enigmatic personality, by turns shifty, querulous, conspiratorial and high principled, he played a major part in the events of 1215 and so contributed substantially to Magna Carta becoming part of the fabric of English political society.

"Robert was born around 1180, the son of Walter FitzRobert, lord of Dunmow (Essex) and Baynard’s Castle, London, and Matilda, daughter of Henry II’s justiciar, Richard de Lucy. Robert’s grandfather, another Robert, the king’s steward, was a younger son of Richard FitzGilbert de Clare, a relationship which meant that Robert himself had ties of cousinage with greatest baronial family in Essex and Suffolk and another family involved in the rebellion of 1215. When he succeeded his father in 1198, Robert inherited a barony of over 66 knights’ fees, to which he could add another 32 fees brought to him by his wife Gunnora, daughter and heiress of Robert de Valognes. The combined barony made him, in the words of the Histoire des Ducs de Normandie 'one of the greatest men in England and one of the most powerful'.

"The most controversial episode of Robert’s early life was one in which he was involved with Saer de Quincy, later earl of Winchester, and a fellow member of the Twenty Five. The pair had been entrusted with the command of the castle of Vaudreuil in the Seine valley, a key point in the defence of Normandy against the French. In 1203, however, they surrendered the stronghold to King Philip and his forces without striking a blow, provoking accusations of cowardice and even of collusion with the enemy. The episode is a mysterious one, and it is not at all clear what lay behind the men’s move. On 5 July the pair obtained letters from the king saying that the castle had been surrendered at his command and that the castellans and garrison were to be unmolested. Robert and Saer were to remain close allies. Robert’s later use of the Quincy arms on his heraldic seal indicates that the two had become brothers-in-arms, a chivalric relationship signifying mutual assistance and protection in the field and the sharing of any of the profits of war afterwards.

"Robert’s relations with John came to a crisis point in 1212. Again, what lies behind the story is obscure, and we have only the uncertain testimony of the chroniclers to guide us. According to the St Albans and Dunstable writers, as John was mustering an army at Chester for an expedition against the Welsh, word reached him of a plot on his life, causing him suddenly to abandon his plans and instead march north to crush the sources of insurrection there. Apparently the two ringleaders were Eustace de Vesci and Robert FitzWalter, both of whom then fled the realm, in the latter’s case to France. What lay behind Robert’s disaffection is not clear. The chroniclers’ explanations appear scarcely to go to the heart of the matter. According to Wendover at St Albans, the cause of the problem was a quarrel between FitzWalter and his own abbey over his rights in their dependent house of Binham Priory, in which he felt let down by the king. FitzWalter alleged that, contrary to the priory’s foundation charter granted by his wife’s ancestor, the abbot of St Albans had demanded excessive hospitality, had installed too many monks and had taken far too much revenue; worse still, during FitzWalter’s absence with the king on service in Ireland, he had installed a new abbot. FitzWalter responded by laying siege to the priory, provoking the king, on the abbot’s appeal, to send troops against him. Whether or not events unfolded exactly as the chronicler records, the episode hardly seems important enough to justify a plot on the king’s life. Another source, the Histoire des Ducs de Normandie offers alternative explanations for FitzWalter’s flight. According to one story, told apparently by the Englishman to the French king, the former was resentful that John had attempted to seduce his daughter Matilda, the wife of Geoffrey de Mandeville, while, according to another, more plausible account, he was angry that John had threatened to hang de Mandeville for killing an esquire at court, threatening 'You’ll see 2,000 knights in your land before you hang him!'. Perhaps of greater relevance than either of these stories is the matter of his ties with the Braose family, who were bitter enemies of John. FitzWalter’s brother Walter was archdeacon of Hereford and thus an associate of Giles de Braose, bishop of Hereford, brother of William de Braose, whom John in a venomous feud had driven from the realm.

"In 1213 Robert and his fellow conspirator, Eustace de Vesci, were both reconciled with the king, and restored to their lands, as part of the general settlement John negotiated with the Church. Robert’s relations with John remained testy, however, and he did not accompany the latter on his expedition to Poitou in 1214; nor did he contribute to the scutage levied to defray the costs of the expedition. Wendover, the St Albans writer, records that he attended the celebrated meeting at Bury St Edmunds in November 1214, at which the barons swore to compel the king to confirm the coronation charter of Henry I. By early 1215 the signs are that he was moving to the forefront of the baronial leadership. In January he was present at the barons’ meeting with the king at which John pledged to answer their grievances at Easter. By the end of April, after John had refused satisfaction, he took up arms with the other eastern lords and somewhere between Stamford and Northampton linked up with the Northerners, who were making their own way south. On 5 May, probably at Brackley, the rebels formally defied John, renouncing their oaths of homage, and chose Robert FitzWalter as their leader. After the fall of London Robert was involved in strengthening the city’s defences, demolishing the houses of the Jews for building material. At Runnymede after the making of the Great Charter he was named to the committee of Twenty Five. On 19 June he was named first among the barons with whom John made a treaty laying down that unless he violated the Charter, London would be yielded to him by15 August.

"FitzWalter’s main priority in the war that followed King John’s rejection of Magna Carta in the autumn was to ensure the retention of baronial control of London. In October, to prevent an assault by the king’s mercenary force on London, he and his allies seized Rochester Castle, placing William d’Albini in charge of its defence. As soon as the king laid siege to the castle, however, and in the process destroyed the bridge over the Medway, FitzWalter was forced to withdraw, judging that he would be the loser in any confrontation with the royalists. Early the next year, with the king quickly regaining the military initiative, FitzWalter and his comrade-in-arms Saer de Quincy travelled to France to seek the help of the French king’s son, Louis, to whom they offered the crown. Louis landed at Pegwell Bay on 21 May, and on 3 June, the day after his arrival in London, FitzWalter and the mayor, William Hardel, led the barons and citizens in performing homage to him.

"FitzWalter remained firmly in the rebel camp in the wake of John’s death in October 1216, and in April 1217 led the relief of the earl of Chester’s siege of de Quincy’s castle at Mountsorrel (Leics.). Once the earl had withdrawn his men, he and his French allies turned east to Lincoln to assist in their siege of Lincoln Castle, which was being held for the king. On 19 May, however, a royalist relieving force under the Marshal arrived, and there was a difference of opinion in the baronial camp over how to respond. FitzWalter is reported to have advised an attacking strategy, but he was overruled, and the barons, playing for safety, withdrew into the walled city. The decision turned out to be a terrible misjudgement. The royalists found a way in, routed their opponents, and virtually the whole of the baronial leadership were taken prisoner. FitzWalter regained his freedom under the terms of the general settlement negotiated at Kingston in September, and he was at large again by the following month. He attended a great council held at Westminster at the end of October at which the former rebels performed homage and fealty to the king. In 1219 he and his old partner Saer embarked on the Fifth Crusade and took part in the siege of the Egyptian city of Damietta. After his return to England he actively involved himself in the politics of the Minority, evidently reconciled to the court, and witnessed the final and definitive reissue of the Charter on 11 February 1225. He died on 9 December 1235 and was buried in Dunmow Priory. His elder son Robert, who had fought with him at Lincoln, had predeceased him, and his heir was a minor, Walter, the son of his second marriage to Rohese.

"FitzWalter can easily come across as an unsavoury figure - haughty, aggressive, petulant, unsubtle, unpredictable, motivated more by personal grievance than concern for the common good. Like others among the Twenty Five, he used political quarrel as a vehicle for the pursuit of family claims. Much of his time was spent in trying to recover Hertford Castle, to which he had a tenuous claim through his wife. At the same time, however, he was resolute in his opposition to John, and his involvement in the crusade and support for the Minority government belie his image as a turbulent malcontent. Matthew Paris, the St Albans chronicler, was no admirer of his, and yet penned a generous obituary on his death. FitzWalter, he said, could ‘match any earl in England: valiant in arms, spirited and illustrious … generous, surrounded by a multitude of powerful blood relatives and strengthened by numerous relatives in marriage’. Matthew’s tribute reminds us just how important blood ties were in bringing together and sustaining the opposition of 1215. Yet the many enigmas that surround Robert highlight for us the sheer difficulty of determining baronial motivation from a distance of eight hundred years."

~ Biography courtesy of Professor Nigel Saul and the Magna Carta 800th Anniversary Committee

Notes

Robert FitzWalter was the leader of the Magna Charta Barons and their Army, styled "Marshal of the Army of God and the Holy Church."[1]

He fought in Ireland in 1210. He was one of the Barons who fell under the suspicion of King John in 1213, and fled with his wife and children to France, whereupon his house of Baynard’s Castle was demolished by the King. He was temporarily reconciled on 21 July 1213, but breaking out again into rebellion, all his lands in Cornwall, descended to him from the Lucy family, were seized. He then became one of the most active against the King, and being elected General of the Baronial army, by the title of “Marshall of the Army of God and the Church”, besieged the castles of Northampton and Bedford. On 15 June 1215 he became a Magna Carta Surety. He was one of the envoys sent by the Barons to call in Prince Louis of France. On his return to England, in company with his cousin, William de Huntingfield, he subdued Essex and Suffolk, but the Royalist party making headway, after the death of King John, under the able leadership of William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, FitzWalter and his companions were utterly defeated at Lincoln on 19 May 1217, and he, with nearly all the other leaders of his party, taken prisoner. He made his peace with the King, and had restitution of his lands on 8 Oct. 1217, and afterwards fought with the King at the siege of Bitham Castle in 1221. Robert died 9 Dec. 1235. His wife, Rohese, survived him and allegedly died in 1256. They were buried before the high altar at Dunmow Priory, Essex.

Robert was the son of Walter FitzRobert and Matilda, daughter of Henry II's justiciar Richard de Lucy. Henry I had granted the honours of Dunmow and Baynard's Castle to Walter's father, Robert, the king's steward, a younger son of Richard fitz Gilbert de Clare. The date of Fitzwalter's birth is unknown, as are the circumstances of his upbringing, though he may be the Robert Fitzwalter mentioned in the Histoire de Guillaume le Maréchal as fighting in the Young King's retinue of over 200 knights at the great tournament at Lagny-sur-Marne in 1180.

On the death of his father in 1198, FitzWalter inherited a barony of over 66 knights' fees, which he could add to the 32 fees already brought to him by his wife, Gunnora, daughter and heir of Robert de Valognes. This combined barony made him, in the words of the Histoire des ducs de Normandie et des rois d'Angleterre, ‘one of the greatest men in England, and one of the most powerful’.

In the scutage roll (1213-20), he is said to have been possessed of 11 knights' fees in Cornwall, which had belonged to his uncle Richard de Lucy.

Sources

  1. per the National Society Magna Charta Dames and Barons www.magnacharta.org
  • Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, Royal Ancestry series, 2nd edition, 4 vols., ed. Kimball G. Everingham (Salt Lake City, Utah: the author, 2011), Volume 2, page 202
  • Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families], 5 vols., ed. Kimball G. Everingham (Salt Lake City, Utah: the author, 2013), Vol. II p. 646-650
  • Cawley, Charles. "Medieval Lands": A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families © by Charles Cawley, hosted by Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG). See also WikiTree's source page for MedLands.
    • England, Untitled English Nobility D-K, Chapter 18. Entry for Robert Fitzwalter (1.a.): Fitzwalter: A. Fitzwalter of Woodham Walter, Essex.
  • Journal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall, Vol. X, 1890-1891; publ. by Lake & Lake, Princes Street, Truro, 1891.
  • Wikipedia: Robert Fitzwalter.
  • Blomefield, Francis. An Essay Towards a Topographical History of the County of Norfolk (W. Miller, Norfolk, England, 1739)
  • Vol. 1, Page 3: "commonly called Robert the Valiant, had two Wives, Gunnora, Daughter of Heiress of Philip de Valoines, and Rohesia or Rose, who survived him,... to Sir Gilbert Pecche, Knt. with his Daughter Alice (some say Sister) in Free Marriage... (He was the) Leader of those Barons that rose against King John, the Beginning of which was on this Occasion as the Book of Dunmowe inform us. About the Year 1213, there arose a great Discord between King John and his Barons, because of Matilda Sirnamed the Fair, Daughter of Robert Fits-Walter, whom the King unlawfully loved, but could not obtain her, nor her Fathers Consent thereunto...poisoned a boiled or potched Egg..., whereof she died in 1213."

Acknowledgements

Click the Changes tab to see edits to this profile; from that list, click WikiTree IDs other than FitzWalter-101 to see changes to those profiles prior to being merged.

Thank you to everyone who contributed to this profile.

Magna Carta Project

As a surety baron, Robert FitzWalter's profile is managed by the Magna Carta Project. See FitzWalter-101 Descendants for profiles of his descendants that have been improved and categorized by the Magna Carta project and are in a project-approved trail to a Gateway Ancestor. See this index for links to other surety barons and category pages for their descendants. See the project's Base Camp for more information about Magna Carta trails.
  • Needs Re-review: #Notes, specifically (appears to have been pasted in from somewhere?) ~ Noland-165, 12 September 2019




More Genealogy Tools



Sponsored Search




Sponsored Search by Ancestry.com

DNA
No known carriers of Robert's DNA have taken a DNA test.

Have you taken a DNA test? If so, login to add it. If not, see our friends at Ancestry DNA.

Login to post a comment.

On 12 Sep 2019 at 04:27 GMT Liz (Noland) Shifflett wrote:

On 8 Nov 2018 at 09:10 GMT Andrew Lancaster wrote:

the birth year disagrees with the one in the text and would make him quite a long liver

Robert is 22 degrees from T S Eliot, 23 degrees from Walter Howe and 11 degrees from Henry VIII of England on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.