George Gardiner

George Gardiner (abt. 1615 - 1677)

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George Gardiner aka Gardner, Gardener
Born about in Englandmap
Son of [father unknown] and [mother unknown]
[sibling(s) unknown]
Husband of — married 1645 (to 1665) in Newport, Newport, Rhode Islandmap
Husband of — married 1666 [location unknown]
Descendants descendants
Died in Kingston, Rhode Islandmap
Profile last modified 5 Oct 2019 | Created 14 Sep 2010
This page has been accessed 6,248 times.
The Puritan Great Migration.
George Gardiner migrated to New England during the Puritan Great Migration (1620-1640).
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Contents

Biography

George Gardiner is Notable.
This profile is part of the Gardner Name Study.

George Gardiner came to Rhode Island and was admitted an inhabitant of Aquidneck in 1638.[1]

In 1639 he was made a Freeman of Newport,[2] where he came to hold various town positions.

From Cutter's New England Families Genealogical and Memorial [3]

"The surnames Gardner and Gardiner are identical and the two spellings have been in use by members of the same family for many generations. According to an old family Bible in a record made in 1790. George Gardner, the immigrant ancestor, was a son of Joseph Gardner, of England, grandson of Sir Thomas Gardner or Gardiner, Knight. George Gardner was evidently a man of education. He was admitted an inhabitant of Newport in 1638, and in 1640 was present at a general court of election, and from that time until 1677, when he died, his name is often in the public records. Gardner and Gardener were more common spellings in the earliest records than Gardiner. George Gardner, it is thought, was related to Thomas Gardner, who died in Roxbury, Massachusetts, in November, 1638, and whose grandson, Caleb Gardner, son of his son Thomas, also settled in Newport.

About 1640 George Gardner married (first) Horod (Long) Hickes.

While many secondary sources call this woman Herodias (the first was Austin's Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island), no known actual record has it spelled so.

She made the statement that she was married to John Hickes in London without the knowledge of her friends, when she was between thirteen and fourteen years old. Soon after coming to Rhode Island the Gardners separated and he went to New Amsterdam. She was divorced and married John Porter, who had also been divorced from his wife. She was a Quaker and once walked to Boston with a young child in her arms to receive a whipping to which she had been sentenced by the Quaker-baiting Puritan authorities there. George Gardner married (second) Lydia Bolton [sic], daughter of Robert and Susannah Bolton [sic]. Children by first wife: Benoni, born 1645-47, died in 1731; Henry, died 1744; George, married, February 13, 1670, Tabitha Tafft; William, born in 1651, died in 1711; Nicholas, mentioned below; Dorcas, born 1654, married John Watson; and Rebecca. Children by second wife: Joseph, married. November 30, 1693, Catherine Holmes; Lydia, married, April 4, 1684, Joseph Smith; Mary; Peregrine; Robert, died in Providence in 1690; and Jeremiah."

From The American Ancestors and Descendants of Ellen Joanna Peckham and William Henry Bates: pp. 78.

"We find George Gardiner at Newport in 1638. Ship "Fellowship". [??] Freeman 1641. Constable and Sergeant 1642. Ensign 1644. Commissioner 1662. He married Herodias [sic] Long, deserted wife of John Hicks, whom she had married at fifteen, when they were both living in London. The Hicks came to America, "where he deserted her and took most of her estate with him". She lived about twenty years with her second husband, George Gardiner, and bore him many children, but they finally separated and were divorced and each married again, she marrying John Porter, who had divorced his old wife, Margaret Odding, but was compelled by the Courts to give her a good support. George Gardiner also was made to give Herodias a good support. This incident, in which all four of the parties, Gardiners and Porters, we are interested in as ancestors, seems much more of a 20th century than a 17th century tale of Newport marital troubles...The Genealogist of Rhode Island, John Osborn Austin, (were there more like him, genealogy would be more popular) wrote Herodias Long's story in a group of "Seven Club Tales," purporting to have been written for a Club of Seven Newport pioneers, and in this he says that Herodias went to see her friend, Mary Dyer, the Quakeress, hanged for her faith, and that Herodias defiantly showed her sympathy with her, though it might have meant her own death or imprisonment. This Seven Club Tale purports to have been written by Herodias and is called "My Husbands and Other Trials" - and for the "Atmosphere" in Newport in the late 17th Centruy, read "The Seven Club Tales", and "The Journal of William Jefferay", (both by John Osborn Austin) which give it from data gathered by a most careful historian. (Data from Austin's Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island) (Gen. of Gardiner Family)

He went to Narragansett by Aug 1, 1638 when his name was 5th on list of 59 men admitted as inhabitants of Aqueedneck Island. Later lived on his estate in Newport. He was a farmer.[4][5]

He is buried in Newport, Rhode Island, United States.

Disputed Information

"The amount of plagiarism in these early genealogy books is truly stunning. I literally read through four or five published works, only to find that biographies had been copied word-for-word from previous texts, with virtually no citation whatsoever. In an effort to not cite superfluous sources, I found the oldest books that were listed in Google Play, and those were the sources I cited from. If you find that these texts have plagiarized older material, please message me with the correct source, and I will update. Thank you." -- Heather

Disputed Origins

It has been claimed, without evidence, that George Gardiner, immigrant to Rhode Island, was the same as George Gardiner, baptized 15 Feb. 1599 at Great Greenford, Middlesex, England, son of Michael Gardiner and Margaret Browne. Also, that he was the same man as George Gardiner who married Clerkenwell in 1630 to Sarah Slaughter.

In 1944, G. Andrews Moriarty authored an extended article, "The Parentage of George Gardiner of Newport, R. I." [6] In the article, he identifies a 1937 work by Mrs. Clara Gardner Miller and Mr. John Milton Stanton as an authored work in which George Gardiner/Gardner, immigrant to Rhode Island, is associated as the son of Rev. Michael Gardiner of Great Greenford, co. Middlesex, England [6][7] (about whom the authors further attribute an extended ancestral line).[8] Moriarty overviews what is known about Rev. Michael Gardiner of Great Greenford and his family. He separately overviews the extant records about George Gardiner of Newport, concluding with (emphasis added)

"… until more evidence, both of a positive and negative nature is forthcoming, no critical genealogist can accept the identification of George Gardiner, son of Rev. Michael Gardner, with George Gardiner of Newport, as proved."[6]

Some of Moriarty's[6] noteworthy findings are:

  1. Lack of records to support a conclusion that George Gardiner of Newport was born early enough to have been baptized 15 February 1599[/1600],[9] the son of Rev. Michael Gardiner and his wife Margaret.
  2. Reasoning to suggest George Gardiner of Newport was unlikely "born prior at earliest to 1604 or 1605" and more likely that he was born "between 1608 or 1609 and 1615," of which "the latter date deems the more probable."[6]
  3. Lack of information to suggest that George Gardiner of "Newport had wife Sarah, prior to his going to live with Herodias." This includes "no evidence of the subsequent life of Sarah Slaughter" and/or her death at New England.
  4. Lack of information about "George Gardiner of Clerkenwell" prior to the time he married Sarah Slaughter."[6] This marriage reported at St. James Parish Church, Clerkenwell, London, March 29, 1630.[10] Referencing parish register of St. James Clerkenwell, Moriarty notes the burial "on 29 Oct. 1657, Rebecca, daughter of George Gardiner,"[11] explaining further that "No attempt is made to show who this George Gardiner was and, consequently, the presumption is that he may be the same George Gardiner" who had earlier married Sarah Slaughter.[6] By the time of that burial (1657), George Gardiner of Rhode Island had been in the colonies almost 20 years.[6]

Moriarty's findings and conclusion begs the question as to what historical discovery has unfolded since 1944 by which George Gardiner of Newport, Rhode Island, could be associated as the son of this Rev. Michael?

Other conflicts are found in the profile vitals and narrative, some of which probably relate to the contested items above. These conflicts include (a) variations in his reported birth (b) one baptismal date reported prior to two different reports of his birth; (c) difference in dates of death in vitals and narrative entries.

Disputed Wife Sarah Slaughter

One George Gardiner married in Clerkenwell, London, England, 29 March 1630 a Sarah Slaughter.[12]

According to G. Andrews Moriarty, Sarah Slaughter's husband, George Gardiner, can not yet be proven as the man by that name who was the son of Rev. Michael Gardiner.[6] Nor can Sarah's husband be proven as the George Gardiner who immigrated Rhode Island.[6]

Disputed Wife Susan Hazzard

In 1943, G. Andrews Moriarty dedicated a full article to Susanna, the first wife of George Gardiner,[13] She was identified in the article as Susanna Hazard, but the wife of George^3 Gardiner (Nicholas^2, George^1).

George Gardiner...married (second) about 1660 in Kingston, Rhode Island Lydia Ballou by whom he had (possibly): Samuel Gardner.

Sources

  1. Citing "Chapin's Doc. History of R. I., II, 117," G. Andrews Moriarty, "The Parentage of George Gardiner of Newport, R. I.," The American Genealogist 21 (1944):194 (in particular part).
  2. Citing "Chapin, p. 66" G. Andrews Moriarty, "The Parentage of George Gardiner of Newport, R. I.," The American Genealogist 21 (1944):194 (in particular part).
  3. Generally without further reference and containing information contrary to more modern accounts, William Richard Cutter, New England Families, Genealogical and Memorial: A Record of the Achievements of Her People in the Making of Commonwealths and the Founding of a Nation, 3rd series, 4 vols. (1915), 1:28 (in particular part); digital images (accessed 2014).
  4. See Abridged Compendium of American Genealogy, Vol.1, p.979
  5. See Gardiner-Gardner Genealogy, by Caroline Robinson
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 G. Andrews Moriarty, "The Parentage of George Gardiner of Newport, R. I.," The American Genealogist 21 (1944):191-200. Moriarty online
  7. The Miller-Stanton work is certainly Gardiner-Gardner genealogy, including the English ancestry of George Gardiner, immigrant ancestor of Newport, R.I., & many of his descendants, especially his grandson, Stephen Gardiner of Gardner Lake, Connecticut (1937); digital images of which are accessible via Hathi Trust.
  8. Moriarty references Henry Sewell Webster, "No. 2. Gardiner, Maine, Historical Series, Silvester Gardiner" (1913) as an earlier work riddled with oversights about the Rhode Island immigrant--facts that may have "originated with an outstanding genealogical romancer, the late Col. Asa Bird Gardiner of New York City"; all from G. Andrews Moriarty, "The Parentage of George Gardiner of Newport, R. I.," The American Genealogist 21 (1944):193-194 (in particular part).
  9. Citing "ancient Register" of the "Church of Great Greenford in Middlesex County," Clara Gardner Miller and John Milton Stanton, Gardiner-Gardner genealogy, including the English ancestry of George Gardiner, immigrant ancestor of Newport, R.I., & many of his descendants, especially his grandson, Stephen Gardiner of Gardner Lake, Connecticut (1937), 15; digital images, Hathi Trust (accessed 2014).
  10. Clara Gardner Miller and John Milton Stanton, Gardiner-Gardner genealogy, including the English ancestry of George Gardiner, immigrant ancestor of Newport, R.I., & many of his descendants, especially his grandson, Stephen Gardiner of Gardner Lake, Connecticut (1937), 23; digital images, Hathi Trust (accessed 2014).
  11. Citing "Am. Gen., April 1938, pp. 244, 246," G. Andrews Moriarty, "The Parentage of George Gardiner of Newport, R. I.," The American Genealogist 21 (1944):199-200.
  12. Clara Gardner Miller and John Milton Stanton, Gardiner-Gardner genealogy, including the English ancestry of George Gardiner, immigrant ancestor of Newport, R.I., & many of his descendants, especially his grandson, Stephen Gardiner of Gardner Lake, Connecticut (1937), 23; digital images, Hathi Trust (accessed 2014).
  13. G. Andrews Moriarty, "The wife of George Gardiner of Narragasett," The American Genealogist 20 (1943):202-207.

See also:

  • G. Andrews Moriarty, "Herodias (Long) Hicks-Gardiner-Porter: A tale of old Newport," Rhode Island History IX (July 1952):84-92.
  • Gardner History & Genealogy by Lillian May and Charles Morris Gardner
  • "Gardner Y-DNA Project - Y-DNA Classic Chart," FamilyTree DNA (click here : accessed 19 July 2014.) This information changes over time, project pages ("About this Group" > "Results") reports that as of July 2012, there were "over 180 Y-DNA Profiles and over 17 distinct groups (matching clusters)."
  • Query of FamilySearch Historical Collections on 19 July 2014 for name George (exact) Gardiner (and variants), born 1590 to 1620, limited further for "births..." (type) with England as location; returns 162 entries (click here), most/all being indexed entries. Results from this query will change over time. Returns include some duplicates; FamilySearch Collection not representative as to all English records of this type. Given restriction as to record type, location and given name, results would not be inclusive as to records about different countries and continents, nor variant given name spellings. Still other approaches to a record survey would be necessary to locate possible associations from entries in extant collections concerning estates, courts, burials, etc.
  • Unsuccessful search for Fellowship, purported passage from Bristol, England, arriving Boston, 29 June 1637. Information associating the Rhode Island immigrant was published (a) in an editor's note to Caroline E. Robinson [and Daniel Goodwin], The Gardiners of Narragansett ... (1919), page 201, citing Henry Sewall Webster, "No. 2, Gardiner, Me, Historical Series, Silvester Gardiner," apparently further referencing research of "Hon. Asa Bird Gardiner, of New York City"; (b) Clara Gardner Miller and John Milton Stanton, Gardiner-Gardner genealogy ... (1937), p. 23, referencing "C. E. Robinson." Critical comment regarding this purported passage published in G. Andrews Moriarty, "The Parentage of George Gardiner of Newport, R. I.," The American Genealogist 21 (1944):191-200; digital images, AmericanAncestors.org (accessed 2014), therein "No reference of authority for [this statement] is given. The name of George Gardiner does not appear in the Shipping Lists preserved in the Public Record Office at London and printed, almost seventy years ago, by Hotten. [George] does not appear in the late Col. Banks's 'Planters of the Comonwealth" or in the latter's Topographical Dictionary of 2,885 English emigrants to leave England 1620-1650." Author goes on to report no entry about George found in Winthrop's Journal. Independent WikiTree-er search for the claimed 1637 passage found no report at Olive Tree Genealogy, "Passenger Ships to New England, Virginia & Barbadoes from England," citing "The Complete Book of Emigrants, 1607-1776"; a later (1640) entry regarding the Fellowship and from Bristol there appears.
  • From LDS FHC OAKLAND, CA computer Ancestral Files pedigree chart. b.d. & place m.d.& place


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On 8 Jun 2019 at 15:07 GMT Sara Rice wrote:

Gardner-1001 and Gardiner-38 appear to represent the same person because: These seem to be the same person with a birthdate variation

On 11 May 2019 at 03:18 GMT Jillaine Smith wrote:

Added to this profile (it's already on hers): While many secondary sources call this woman Herodias (the first was Austin's Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island), no known actual record has it spelled so.

On 10 May 2019 at 23:02 GMT Jeanne Gunderson wrote:

According to "The Gardiners" you have placed on this page, Harwood Long should be spelled Herodias.

On 27 Dec 2018 at 13:58 GMT Jillaine Smith wrote:

Randy, research published after the 1937 work questioned its reliability, and concluded against the parents and spouse claimed in the 1937 work. Please read the disputed origins section in this profile for key arguments.

On 27 Dec 2018 at 12:36 GMT Randy Beebe wrote:

The 1937 Miller and Stanton Gardiner Genealogy has the most robust and well documented treatment of the ancient history of the Gardiner family and George Gardiner of any of the Gardiner Genealogies. It includes information sources for his parentage, and his first wife Sara Slaughter. This text is presently available from archive.org on a check out basis as it is still under copyright protection.

On 26 Dec 2018 at 20:24 GMT Jillaine Smith wrote:

The date of birth here is clearly wrong.

It assumes his marriage to Lydia was his first; it was not. He was first married to Herodias Long; see the duplicate (that still needs merging with this one): Gardiner-38

On 26 Dec 2018 at 16:13 GMT Anne B wrote:

Although I suspect the george's are the same , the other George has an uncertain child Samuel attached, who should be looked at.

On 26 Dec 2018 at 13:23 GMT Leslie Newell wrote:

Gardner-1001 and Gardiner-38 are not ready to be merged because: Gardner-1001 born in 1636

Gardinier-38 was born in 1615 If they are merged, Gardner-1001 would have been accepted as an inhabitant of Aquidneck in 1638. Approximately two years after he was born in England.

On 26 Dec 2018 at 11:51 GMT Jillaine Smith wrote:

Gardner-1001 and Gardiner-38 appear to represent the same person because: Not sure why these were set to Unmerged match. They clearly represent the same person. Use data and text from Gardiner-38. Thanks.

On 18 Apr 2018 at 09:59 GMT Jillaine Smith wrote:

Two things: 1) I am detaching the mother recently added. His parents are NOT known. Please read the profile before making changes and discuss parental theories via g2g. There's an existing thread for this purpose. Thank you.

2) this profile has many many managers, all of you active wikitreers. Wikitree recommends no more than 2-3. If you are not actively researching this profile, please change your status here to Trusted List. You will still receive notifications of changes in your weekly feeds. Thank you.

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George is 24 degrees from Lizzie Griffiths, 17 degrees from Fred Rogers and 11 degrees from Henry VIII of England on our single family tree. Login to find your connection.